Wednesday, July 31, 2019

American experiences since 1945

The course is designed to show in details the events that took place in America after the Second World War. That is the things that happened in America after 1945. There are many events that took place. The post war period start from 1945 when Manchukuo province was captured by the Soviet Union and the atomic bombs which were dropped by USA on the mainland of Japan. This essay is going to touch on the cold war ideologies and breakups of made during the time of the war.Also the policies that were made during the cold war time, I will also discuss the events that took place in the 1950s: Politics and Culture, the liberal reforms of 1960s, reason why USA crashed with southern Asia and elaborate on the conservatism and the consensus politics. I will also discuss on the happenings of the 1970’s: Nixon’s politics and achievements and finally, I will also discuss on the 80s events: the cold war, its end and the reasons that led to the fall of the communism. The immediate post war period. The period after 1945(Farber D. , 1994) was a golden time of capitalism in America.In 1946 the council of economic advisors was established. Its roles were to analyze and advice on various policies mostly in development and implementation of domestic and international economic policies. At around 1953 the council for economic advisors had come up with five policies. These were: economic quantitative targets were set. The â€Å"growth model† of economic replaced the â€Å"cyclical model†, full employment budget was drawn, fiscal drag theories were employed, taxation base and flexibility were widened and finally and a low aggregate demand replaced unemployment notion that had persisted.In 1945 there emerged a crash in the course implementation between Edwin Nourse and Leon Keyserkling. Nourse believed that guns were to be dispensed for butter but Keyserling thought that by expanding economic it would promote expenditure without compromising the standards of l iving. During the inter war period economic depended on massive spending , raw materials control and price controls as well as the draft of 12 million military men with these reforms the quality of the lives of Americans continued to improve(Leslie B. , 1995) Culture Emergence and some Politics of 1940s and 1950sDuring this period the quality of life was improved through social welfares. As the stock exchange market thrived uninterrupted from 1949 up to 1957 (Hardayal S. , 2001) the great depression status was reversed, the government embarked on social welfares and military industries complex as it was called by Dwight Eisenhower. It involved employing women in industrial places for manufacturing ammunitions. They were also employed in the military service. The war time experience of women working in military services shaped the future career of women.Many women who were in the war went back to their house hold chores. This past experience led to later integration of women in to th e working places in America. According to (Halliwell M. , 2007) the 1950s provides an account of the cultures in America. These were fiction, poetry, theatre, television and films performances, music, radio and visual arts. In this period the economic was still not good. For instance, there were about 3,288,000 people who were unemployed the average salary of the working class was 2,992 dollars.This is the period that saw many young people who serve in the war comeback home to pick up their lives start new families and new jobs. With this new phase of experiences, American industries rose up to the challenge of meeting the rising demands of items. Americans began buying things they could not buy during the wartime. 1960s: The Liberal Reforms and Kennedy’s Visions. In 1960 a presidential election was held. This marked the end of Dwight Eisenhower as the president of America. He served his nation for a period of two terms.At this time his vice president was Richard Nixon who ha d turned his office into a political base. In the elections of 1960s, John F. Kennedy- a democrat was the second one to have the presidential position as a Roman Catholic after a democrat Al smith . At this time the Soviet Union was far a head of America both militarily and economically. At this time Kennedy was young and inexperienced to be trusted with presidency and his victory margin was among the closest ever known in the history of America. This was attributed to his religious stand. It was believed that many Protestants did not vote him (Murray C., 1994) In 1950’s and 60’s both major political parties in USA were liberal and conservative factions. The Democratic Party had northern and Western liberals and on the other hand was the conservative Southern whites. For two decades the cold war liberalism was not that active and it only peaked in 1964 when Lyndon B. Johnson over Barry Gold water during the election. In 1948, Truman the then president of USA had outlaw ed desegregation in the armed forces and civil rights were strongly agitated for. These culminated in to the passage of 1964 civil rights act as well as the voting rights act of 1965.During 1960s the relations between white liberals and civil rights leaders intensified. The later accused the former of hindering the progress it was during this time that Kennedy put federal troops to protect the African Americans who were being admitted to the University of Mississippi. In 1962 (Sitkof H. , 2000) f James Meredita and Martin Luther King junior staged a march to Washington in 1966. This emerged to be a very strong movement which was called the black power. The blacks in this movement accused the whites of trying to control the blacks’ agendas.The opponents of the civil rights wanted blacks in America to stop following democratic machines and instead apply the ethnic model. The civil rights movements totally revolutionized the lives of blacks in America. Much of the credit goes to Martin Luther king. He was the leader of hundreds of Black people. He inspired the blacks greatly especially when he made his’ I have a dream speech’ to the multitude. It was all about racial harmony. This was done on the mail in Washington. In 1902, Kennedy announced that by the end of the 1960s decade USA would send a man on the moon in a spaceship and safety return him to earth alive.This was the height of optimism because at this time its space program was in its infancy stage It was also at this time that president Johnson of America promised his people that he would fight poverty and ensures that the Americans would enjoy descent lives. This promise was actualized when social security fund was increased and as a result millions of Americans received improved health care. This 1960s became the turning point in the history of American. A lot were achieved at this time (Suman K. and Bery G. F. , 1997) 1970s: Outcomes of Vietnam Invasion and Lifestyles Change.During the 1960s period, Richard Nixon in his presidential campaign promised to end the Americans involvement in the war again Vietnam if he was elected in office in 1969. This whole plan was called â€Å"Vietnamization† it meant that the United States would gradually withdraw itself from the Vietnam War and transfer its military duties to the Southern Vietnam. He wanted to reinforce the Eisenhower and Kennedy’s policies of helping the South Vietnamese but things did not go as they were expected. In 1969(Brad R. , 1991) the North Vietnamese communists intensified their attacks and through Laos and Cambodia supply lines.As a result of these events Nixon invaded Cambodia and bombarded Laos. This initially was done secretly but sooner than later it was made public by Nixon who on 1970 April 30 announced on the television that he invaded Cambodia and wanted to recruit some 150,000 new soldiers . This decision was not welcomed by many Americans in fact it provoked many ant-war pr otests especially from college and campus students. In 1970 on May 4th the National Guard fined shots in to a crowd of demonstration at Kent state university and killed four of them and about nine wounded. This only increased outrage to people who turned against Nixon and Vietnam War.Due to the increased pressure to put the war to an end an end (Goodwin J. , 2001) Nixon ordered the North Vietnam zone to be bombed. This act led to signing of an agreement which led to the termination of the war in March 1973. As America quit the war, it left the southerners to fight the northerners’ American indigence in the war caused it a big harm. About 55,000 American lives perished. Basically American gained very little from this war. It left Vietnam a devastated nation. 1980s: Cultural Influence and Economic Policies. In 1980s there was economic boom. The existing market was advancing in age and was financially becoming stable.The society’s face changed demographically. People coul d live longer and seemed younger. New technologies replaced old ones or we can say that there was a technological change. These changes were celebrated by Richard Nixon and his wife with a fashionable clothes accompanied by social events that displayed affluence of American society (Minarik J. J. , 1990) During this time the whole world was in perpetual change for instance the USSR eased their roles and gave in to private enterprise the famous Berlin war came down and Western cloths found their way in eastern, countries.There were some economic policies that were posed by the government. For instance it states that when market lack the in information on the quality of assets as well as true value of an institutions net worth then potential for crisis increased. 1990s: Revival of Cold War Period and Reagan’s Ideas. In the 1980s the cold war came to an end the eastern block had suffered economically. The cold war period of 1985-1991 came back to life with the ascension of Mikha il Gorbachev to power in 1991. In the same year on December 31, the USSR broke into 15 separate nations and this marked the end of the cold war period.Conclusion. Having seen the effects of every action that has been done in America since 1945 and Judging by the way things stand currently, we can say that in the past ten years the politics of America will move to greater heights as the democrats and the republicans become more vibrant in addressing the things that are affecting the Americans right now. Culturally, Americans are very dynamic people who keep on inventing new ways of life. So, it is hard to predict what exactly will happen in the next ten years to come. But socially it seems people will be more integrated, interactive and united.Americans are social and interact with their fellow people in a positive manner and that is why America is a united nation. Reference: Halliwell M. , 2007: American Culture in the 1950’s. Edinburgh University Press, United Kingdom. Farbe r D. , 1994: The Age of Great Dreams America in the 1960s, 1st Edition. USA. Goodwin J. , 2001: No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movement 1945-1991 Cambridge University Press P. 5 Suman K. and Bery G. F. 1997: Preventing Banking Sector Distress and Crises in Latin America; Proceedings on a Conference Held in Washington DC, World Bank. Minarik J. J., 1990: Making America’s Budget Policies from the 1980’s to the 1990’s M. E. Sharpe. Murry C. , 1994: Loosing Ground; American Social Policy 1950- 1980, Basic Books 10th Anniversary Edition. Brad R. , 1991: Weapons Proliferation in the 1990s. MIT Press, Washington. Ciment J. , 2006: Postwar America: An Encyclopedia of Social Political Cultural and Economic History Sharpe New York. Sitkoff H. , 2000: Post War America a Student Companion, Oxford University Press. Leslie B. , 1995: The Cambridge History of Latin America, Cambridge University Press. Hardayal S. , 2001. Ambassadors of Culture. Princeton University Press.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Investments Essay

1)   In 1994 the Bulgarian government issued bonds on which the coupon payments were tied to the GDP of the country.   I’m simplifying here, but basically a low level of GDP (a country-level measure of economic growth and activity) would reduce the interest payments on the bonds, and a high level of GDP would increase the interest payments.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚   Suppose a US investor buys these bonds, what risks is the investor exposed to? (list everything which could negatively affect the investment!) One of the risks associated with this bond is Interest rate  risk. The prices of bonds are inversely related to rates of interest. A higher GDP of Bulgaria would mean that the price of the bond will decrease, however a lower GDP would mean that the price of the bond will decrease. The interest  rate  on a bond is  set  at the time it is issued, which is in 1994. The coupon in 1994 reflected the interest rate at the time of issuance, however the increase in interest, in GDP, will make people unwilling to purchase bonds. In other words, the US investor will have a difficulty reselling the bond to secondary markets should the GDP of Bulgaria increase. Should he decide to keep the bonds, then his interest income is very much dependent on the GDP of the nation. There are is no fixed amount that he can count on. Another risk associated with bond is credit risk. Just as individuals default on mortgage payments, bond issuers can possibly default as well. Usually, bonds issued by the government are immune from this risk, but nothing is risk free in issues such as credit. Call risk is another risk the investor is exposed to. The government of Bulgaria can easily call back the bonds before maturity so they can issue it at a lower interest rate forcing the investor to reinvest the principal at a lower interest rate. Inflation risk is perhaps the worst of the investor must endure. The GDP of Bulgaria will suffer immensely if significant inflation is suffered by the country. Anything that affects the GDP of the nation will affect the interest rates of the bonds issued.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Are their any ways to manage/offset some of these risks? Credit risk, generally associated with any kind of credit is practically managed in investing in these bonds. Governments, generally pay out their bonds, and on time too because it will not look good for the government to default from its loans to its people or its investors. The other kinds of risks are hard to manage given that they are dictated by a nation’s GDP. The investor from the US cannot likely influence how Bulgaria’s GDP shall fluctuate. 2)   In the 1970’s Yale University implemented a system for students in which the students would receive loans to pay their tuition.   Repayment of the loans involved the following arrangement: -after graduation all students enrolled in the program would pay 0.4% of their annual income per $1,000 borrowed until the entire cohort, or class, had paid off their debt, or until 35 years had passed, whichever came sooner.   (See â€Å"The New Financial Order† by Robert Shiller, 2004, Princeton University Press, page 143)  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What risks are the students exposed to? The students, are exposed to the risk of paying more than they owe given that the program ensured that they can finish their studies but they essentially had to pay for royalties for 35 years. Imagine a student in 1974 who borrowed $30,000 to finance his Yale education. Assuming he has graduated in 1978, and started to earn $100,000 annual. For this first year alone, he will have to pay Yale .8% of his annual income which is $800. This payment will not stop until each person in his class, who obtained a loan from the University, has paid off his debt. The percentage of payment is fixed but the salary of this Yale grad keeps increasing yearly. Suppose this student managed to pay off his loan in 20 years, yet there are 5 people from his class who have not yet paid theirs, possibly because these 5 people have no income, then for fifteen more years the person is indebted to Yale for .8% of his annual income that is probably in the million dollar bracket by now.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What risks are the lenders of money exposed to? Yale, on the other hand is exposed to the risk of students paying off their loans quickly. Given that Yale produces quality graduates (i.e. President Bill Clinton), the students can easily pay back their indebtedness given their instant financial status after graduation. The time value of money is the greatest exposure of Yale. A $30,000 loan the University has given in 1974 has bigger value as compared to the $30,000 the students gave back in installment payments. The entire class might a find a way to fully pay their debts and Yale may not recover any interests for the loan extended.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Are their any ways to manage/offset some of these risks? If one student, or a group of students has/have the means, then he or they can just buy off the remaining loan of their classmates, to ensure that everyone is debt free from Yale and the annual payments of every shall stop. The group may in turn collect from those who cannot pay Yale yet and draw up new terms and conditions for the loan. 3) In 1997 so-called Bowie bonds were issued.   These were 10 year bonds paying a 7.9% annual interest coupon, where the money for meeting the payments on the bonds was to come from the future income of musician David Bowie (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_bowie if you’ve never heard of him!). What is the purpose of issuing bonds of this nature (i.e. what’s in it for the issuer)?  David Bowie pretty much protected himself to the decline of his popularity. His bonds were issued in exchange for ten years worth of royalties. Bonds were issued in this instance as a security. David Bowie has benefited from this deal, he may or may not have known it at that time but the bonds secured him from music piracy which has plagued the industry at the end of the 90’s. What risks are investors in the bonds exposed to?  After a while, bond investors were exposed to David Bowie’s decline in popularity. Also, they have been exposed to the ultimate enemy of the music industry: piracy. David Bowie issued the bonds on time before website like Kazaa have grown over the internet. Are their any ways to manage/offset some of these risks?  The investors have exposed themselves to the ultimate risk. They have relied too much on the popularity of David Bowie at the time when David Bowie himself protected himself from his decline. Consumer tastes are highly unpredictable and I do not see a way on how the bond investors could have controlled the popularity of music piracy throughout the end of the 90’s and early 2000 when they were supposed to get the royalties. 4)   In â€Å"The New Financial Order† by Robert Shiller, the author proposes â€Å"livelihood† insurance in the form of derivative contracts on the performance of particular professions.   In brief, the way it would work is: -we construct an index which broadly captures the current levels of compensation in a particular profession based on market data.   If demand (and salary) for people in a certain profession increases then so would the index, and if demand decreases then so would the index.   In other words, the index attempts to capture how good the current career prospects are in that field. Why might people be interested in contracts valued in this way?   Think of both speculation and hedging when considering this question.  People might be interested in these kinds of contract because of speculation and hedging. These people are presently employed of course. However, should the demand for their current profession grew, and various companies here and there are offering the same job at a higher compensation, then the person will not be happy at his current job. This kind of insurance will at least get him compensated for that opportunity lost while he stays with his present employer. He speculated that he would gain in the future given that he foresees better-paying opportunities for his career, but it requires a move to another nation or state, so he entered into a contract that would allow him be compensated as he wanted but remain secure in his current position. How is this proposal different to an individual simply taking out an insurance policy against failing to succeed in his/her chosen profession? (for example, an aspiring musician taking out an insurance contract which pays out if the person never actually ever gets offered a recording contract)  This specific example has failure in mind. In the first example, the individual did not have to fail anything. He remains secure in his current position.

Monday, July 29, 2019

How far a company in the UK faces barriers to new product innovation Essay

How far a company in the UK faces barriers to new product innovation - Essay Example enterprises were surveyed , mostly across the manufacturing and services sectors and predominantly those firms which had more than 10 employees, and focused primarily on the development of new products. The innovativeness of films in the 2005 survey was categorized into three distinct sub classes, i.e., (a) novel innovators, who introduced at least one new product in the market (b) imitating innovators who have not introduced at least one new product and (c) incomplete innovators, who had engaged in innovation activities but had not introduced any new product or process during the period. When all the participant firms were assessed on the basis of novel innovators, it may be noted that only 16% from all the various sectors were found to belong in this first category, as depicted in the graph below: As clearly evident from the graph above, manufacturing firms appear to have been the largest innovators, followed closely by financial and business services, and these sectors have also been the most profitable sectors. As compared to this, the approximate percentage of firms engaging in continuing new innovation activity in the same sectors in 2007 is provided in the table and graph below: It is significant to note that construction is the sector that shows the highest percentage of new innovation activity, while similar activities in the manufacturing sector appear to have declined (See Figute 3.1 in 2007 survey). However, when this is compared to the extent of continuing innovation activity, the graphical representation changes as follows: This reveals that innovation activity has been continuing in the manufacturing sector, while the extent of continuing innovation is low in the construction sector. This appears to suggest that the patterns of innovative activity have changed; the drive to develop new products was greater in the manufacturing sector in 2005 which has been continued, while the manufacturing sector may be experiencing a similar drive towards

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Revised pieces 2,3,4,5,and structured Research Paper

Revised pieces 2,3,4,5,and structured - Research Paper Example Nevertheless, the actions of Capone did not allow this Act, to be effective with the numerous illegal beer breweries that he carried out. Capone’s money, power and glamour are accompanied by ruthless activities which he engages in be it murder, violence so long as his goals are achieved. His violence is clearly seen in the St. Valentine’s Day massacre becoming one of the most horrifying events in Chicago’s history. A lump sum reward will accorded to any person who brings in any invaluable information to the authorities. Contact the address at the bottom of the page. Piece 4 board games The following game is to be played by following rules and instructions Paying rent on a utility if you throw a dice and it falls on a utility owned by another player, you pay him thrice the value of the property. Timing and trading, this can happen any time, but only when you are playing. Buying a mortgaged property when buying a mortgaged property you can pay for it later in the g ame or pay for it immediately. The game includes ladders that will help you in climbing as you gain more and more wealth. Every time your dice ends in square with a ladder use to climb up The game includes jail card you will get a jail card if you fail to pay on time for rent or mortgaged property. Owners of a property are required to pay taxes failure to which they will be sent to jail. The tax will be 15% of the value of the property. The more properties you the more taxes is required of you Piece 5 how to gain and keep power Be ironic; never trust your friends too much, learn how to make use of your enemies just like AL Capone who expressed his good intentions towards his enemies by sending them flowers during their funerals. Learn to keep your intentions to yourself because you may never know who will use them against you. Get other people to do the work for you, but take the credit. AL Capone maintained his power by providing what was needed by the majority that is the poor who depended on alcohol to absorb their sorrows away. Always learn to win people by your actions, Al Capone was always there to help people who were in need and therefore despite the evil side of Capone people could care less of his criminal activities. Capone was an elegant person who valued family; he always played the part of a self-made millionaire, whose actions did not depict anything unusual that would brand him a social misfit. Although Capone died many years ago living behind a character that is emulated by script writers for various movies. Piece 6 tabloid article Al Capone’s illegal nature started way back when he was a teenager, when he joined a criminal organization by the name five point gang. After he moved to Chicago, Capone’s involvement with Colosimo, a criminal gangster led him together with Torrio to expand operations after his death. In the 1920s, he had a booming criminal; an empire that included beer breweries, night club gambling organization and a prostitution circle. Although he was a criminal, he was considered a successful businessman though the means by which he gained that fame is questionable, which is a benefit of cheating your way up to power. His fame was accompanied by admiration by those who regarded him as a business tycoon rather than a criminal gang. Often the society forgets the criminal nature of

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Leading Stragegic Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Leading Stragegic Change - Essay Example Bear in mind the data it is possible to say that employees feel lack of HR support in the process of personal development. The increasing need for change is created by internal need to improve technology and labor skills; attitudes of employees; size of organization; need to improve performance. For most organizations, change is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staff who are technically and socially competent, and capable of career advancement into specialist departments or management positions. There is, therefore, a continual need for the process of staff development, and training fulfils an important part of this process. Training should be viewed, therefore, as an integral pan of the process of total quality management. Strategic management is a process geared at detecting environmental threats and turning them into opportunities (Bolman & Deal, 2003). There are 7 C's of change which involve conversation, consistency, creativity, courage, commitment, change and celebration. 3ach of these C's has a great impact on organizational performance and functions of management. Management (supervisor and above) more positive than crew leaders and employees in their responses on most questions and indexes except those relating to interdepartmental cooperation and increased motivation as a result of reorganization. Crew Leaders more positive than employees in their responses to questions relating to clear understanding of job duties and sense of teamwork within their departments. Employees more positive than crew leaders in their responses to questions regarding trust and confidence in upper management, ethical standards, and increased motivation as a result of... This essay focuses on investigating the issue of sustainable strategic organizational change that can be explained as a continuous change which affects all areas of business activities. This change entails developing a business process model of how activities function, analyzing relationships among business units, and implementing changes that would eliminate redundant processes and make business units more effective. Performance deficiencies result from motivational problem which is closely connected with lack of skills. To improve this situation, the researcher suggests that organizations need to change employees' motivation taking into account rapid environmental changes. The purpose of strategic change is to provide management with a framework in which decisions can be made which will have an impact on the organization. A conscious effort to systematize the effort and to manage its evolution is preferable to an unmanaged and haphazard evolution. The basic planning problem is how to allocate the organization's limited resources. The researcher also mentiones some major benefits that to be expected from planning that include an improved sense of direction for the organization, better performance, increased understanding of the organization and its purposes as well, earlier awareness of problems and other issues, and more effective decisions. Long-range planning is most often an extrapolation of the present. It answers the question of how to get the job done in details.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Digital Intellectual Property Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Digital Intellectual Property - Essay Example Digital intellectual property is a type of intellectual property, which is somewhat more technical and information technology oriented. Some of the most common digital intellectual property issues include plagiarism, reverse engineering, open source code, competitive intelligence, and cyber squatting. In this paper, we will discuss plagiarism, which is one of the most common digital intellectual property issues. Plagiarism In the simplest form, plagiarism means to use someone’s idea, conversation, writing, or any other thing without using the reference of that person. Plagiarism is not only associated with the act of copying someone’s written work or oral speeches without mentioning the source but also it is associated with all types of visual art works, music, and paintings. â€Å"A painting that is a direct copy of someone else’s work without permission is also plagiarism when the work is presented as one’s own† (Ellis-Christensen, n.d.). There ar e a number of ethical issues related to plagiarism, which make it one of the most common issues all over the world. â€Å"Plagiarism violates the law as well as individual moral codes† (Jorgensen, n.d.). ... 5). My personal point of view regarding the issue of plagiarism is that it is an act of copying and cheating which is totally against the creativity ethics. Rozakis (2007) states, â€Å"Plagiarism is a serious lapse in ethics as well as a cause for failure† (p. 118). Here, I would like to relate a personal experience in which my professor caught me for the act of plagiarism. My professor gave me an assignment in which I had to write a one-page paper on some topic of my interest. I wrote the paper on discrimination and submitted it to the professor. Unfortunately, the professor gave me no marks for the paper as he caught some plagiarism in that paper. Actually, I copied a couple of paragraphs from a website and tried to write them in my own words. My professor discouraged my act and asked me that I should have mentioned the source even for paraphrasing. Although I lost my marks in that assignment but I got some new information about plagiarism that one should not closely paraph rase two large paragraphs without mentioning the source. Some people say that paraphrasing is one of the ways to avoid plagiarism. However, if someone does paraphrasing of a small paragraph or a quotation, which is very close to the original version, it is also a form of plagiarism. â€Å"Paraphrasing someone else’s work too closely is another form of plagiarism† (Ellis-Christensen, n.d.). Plagiarism is cheating which cannot be tolerated in any case. Submitting someone else’s work as one’s own, doing close paraphrasing, not documenting the references properly, or copying personal work are such actions which do not find any base in the ethics of creative works. Some people use copyrighted work available on the internet

The Effectivity of Compressed Bandaging in Treating Venous Leg Ulcer Dissertation

The Effectivity of Compressed Bandaging in Treating Venous Leg Ulcer - Dissertation Example Factors that influence the compliance with the compression treatment Conclusion Referencess Abstract Venous ulcer is a common disease that affects about 1-2% of the general population during their lifetime. Treatment of this condition is long-lasting and time consuming and many factors are influencing the effectiveness and the healing rates of compression bandage. In this study we will critically analyze the effectiveness of compression bandage in the treatment of venous ulcers caused by venous insufficiency of the vein system of the lower leg. In order to do so we analyzed 4 studies that researches the different aspect of efficacy of compressive bandages. We analyzed the efficacy of different types of compressive bandages. We also analized the efficacy of compressive bandage compared to surgery and we found that compressive bandages are as effective as surgery in the treatment of venous ulcers on the lower extremities. At the end we also analyzed the factors that affect the compliance of the patients to the therapy and factors that influence the correct application of compression bandages by the medical professionals. We can conclude that compression bandages are the most effective treatment of venous ulcers and the efficacy as effective as any other new method of treatment. Additional research is needed in order to assure the usage of the a ppropriate type of compression systems by the medical professionals. ... Overall prevalence of venous ulcers in the morbidity of the human population is estimated around 0.18% but it is found that 1-2 % of the population suffers from chronic venous leg ulcers (Graham et all 2003). Treatment of vein ulcers is long lasting and costly and the disease is prone to remissions and exacerbations. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the total health budget in European western countries is spend in treatment and care of patients with this condition. In United States the estimated costs for the treatment and care of about 6 million patients with venous leg ulcers is estimated on 2.5 billion dollars a year (Nelzen 2000) (Phillips et al. 1994). Venous ulcers are the most important cause of chronic wounds representing 70 to 90 percents of all chronic wounds which significantly influence the quality of life of the affected patients over prolonged periods of time. There are many theories about the etiology of this disease but the exact etiology is still not well und erstood. Veins in the calf are constituted of two different and interconnected systems - deep and superficial vein system which are divided between themselves by the muscle fascia in the calf. Veins that constitute the deep system eventually form the popliteal and femoral vein, are located beneath the muscle fascia and are responsible for collecting the blood from the deeper tissues and muscles of the calf. In this system within the muscles there are located veins with larger volume (sinuses), without valves that act as reservoirs of blood when the calf muscles are at rest. This system of deep veins can collect up to 150 ml of blood in normal individual, but they can storage much more if there are malformations in this system. The

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligence Research Paper

Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligence - Research Paper Example Before discussing the theory of Multiple Intelligences in detail, let us get a brief introduction of the theorist, Howard Gardner. Howard Gardner was born in the United States in 1943. He got his major education from Harvard University where he studied history, social relations, psychology, and human behaviors. His ideological beliefs and perceptions are influenced by some key figures related to the fields of psychology and sociology. Some of those prominent figures include Nelson Goodman, Jean piaget, Erik Erikson, and Jerome Bruner. Currently, Garner is serving as a professor in Boston University School of Medicine and Harvard University.Seven Intelligences of the Theory Multiple intelligence theory suggests that humans usually have a variety of intelligences that are independent of each other (Marchetti, n.d.). This theory is more humane and veridical as compared to alternative views of intelligence (Gardner, 2006, p. 6). The seven intelligences included in the Howard Gardner†™s Multiple Intelligences model are linguistic intelligence, logical/mathematical intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily/kinesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and intrapersonal intelligence (Bogin, 2012). Let us discuss all of them in detail in order to develop an understanding of key intelligences.This intelligence refers to the use of language to accomplish certain goals. A person can use language to write something, learn something, and to express his/her feelings to others.  Ã‚  

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Archaic Electoral College for Presidential Elections Research Paper

The Archaic Electoral College for Presidential Elections - Research Paper Example Firstly, it is important to describe how the Electoral College method currently works. Every four years, in this indirect election method, U.S. citizens vote for Electors in their respective states who, in turn, vote for a Presidential candidate. With some exceptions, when a party receives a majority in a particular state, Electors from that party are deemed to have won the state. There are a total of 538 electors in the Electoral College system. When a party wins enough states to reach a count of at least 270 electors, the Presidential nominee from that party wins the election. So, a President wins the election by an aggregate of statewide electors rather than the total number of nationwide votes. The number of Electors in each state is equal to the total number of Senators and U.S. Representatives in it (â€Å"How the Electoral College Functions† 10). Since the number of U.S. Representatives is based on population, more populous states have more electors. The electors only t ake part in this one-time vote and are not responsible for any future legislative work. They are appointees of participating political parties and typically always vote in favour of their party’s respective candidate. Historically, on four occasions the winning president did not receive the popular vote with the latest being the 2000 elections (â€Å"How the Electoral College Functions† 17) when Al Gore lost to George W. Bush by a slim margin of Electoral College votes despite receiving a higher nationwide popular vote. Bush won 271 Electoral College votes, with a margin of only 1 vote above the minimum required.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The importance of speaking and writing in the Field of study dealing Essay

The importance of speaking and writing in the Field of study dealing with Cisco Systems - Essay Example Today Cisco is considered to be the largest computer information systems corporation of the world. It generates revenue of approximately 41 billion USD per annum. Cisco, apart from developing, designing and selling computer technology products, also offers a series of IT professional certifications. Entry, Associate, Professional, Expert and recently Architect are categorized under the levels of certification that the corporation offers. Apart from the levels, there are 8 paths that are also present in the certification program which include service provider, routing and switching, design, network security, service provider operations, storage networking, voice and wireless. These well known and valuable IT professional certification programs held at Cisco certifications are highly beneficial for the professionals, managers and the corporation staff itself. Importance of writing in the field of study dealing with Cisco systems: Writing is one of the most important factors in every fi eld of study. Be it the field of science, medicine, managerial sciences, commerce, law, humanities, in all sorts of field, researches are being done. This is to improve the fields of study and to update the students with the latest and accurate information in their fields and also to correct the wrong research works and theories which were made in the past. This is why writing is very important for every field because only good writing will put down the research work more vividly in front of the world. Without a good writing capability, the research worker will not be able to illustrate his/her research work clearly and will not be able to make others understand what the research work actually is all about. Cisco, being the world’s largest computer and networking corporation, needs to update itself with the new computer techniques and technologies and also to introduce new designs and technologies in the world of computer systems. As we advance into the new era and are living in a very fast moving world, where every technology, every theory, every scientific research and everything is changing its state day by day because of more and more research done on every tiny particle worldwide. Therefore, it is important for Cisco as well to hunt for new and unique technologies in the computer and networking operations. Therefore, a student who is studying IT professional certification dealing with Cisco should also constantly make researches. For writing down a research paper, a student must have good writing abilities and skills, without which a good piece of work cannot be written as the student will not be able to clearly elaborate the research which he has made and will not be able to explain his research work, his points of view and the benefits which he thinks he can provide to the computer and networking systems through his research work. Therefore, researching and writing in the field of study, especially dealing with Cisco systems is very important now adays. Writing in the field of Cisco involves qualitative research work. A qualitative research work includes a good quality of data, documents and evidences to understand the research and rely on it. Qualitative research work dealing with Cisco systems is done with a great variety of methodologies, logics and techniques. In Cisco systems, the

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Sublime and Architectural Theory Essay Example for Free

The Sublime and Architectural Theory Essay As Michael K. Hayes comments in Architecture Theory since 1968, a typology to emerge in the mid eighteenth century was a return of architecture to its natural origins, an example of the primitive shelter. This return and respect of nature was interestingly enough occurring across art, literature and landscape design simultaneously and internationally. It was as if people were warily eyeing the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution and entered into a love-hate tolerance of the machine age with the concepts of nature playing a reassuring role throughout these social and industrial evolutions. In reference to nature, the sublime countered many perceptions of the tamed environment through poetry, painting, national parks and urban design. The term sublime was first used to describe nature by British writers taking the Grand Tour of the Swiss Alps in the 17th and 18th centuries. The sublime was meant as an aesthetic quality in nature that was both beautiful and terrible, horrible and harmonious, appreciating the unexpected and dangerous forms found in nature that had been avoided in literature and art through the concepts of a more tamed and friendly environment. German philosopher Immanuel Kant reflects on the concept of boundaries between beauty and the sublime in his Critique of Judgment written in 1790. Distinguishing between the differences of beauty versus the sublime, beauty is connected with the form of the object, respecting the objects boundaries whereas the sublime is found in a formless object, boundless, unfamiliar and unexpected. The Romantic Period revealed a shift from the picturesque paintings of a controlled and safe landscape to paintings depicting the grotesque and beautiful as found in works such as Frederic Edwin Churchs Cotopaxi , oil on canvas 1826, an opposition to the classical ideals of perfection. The concept of sublime evolved through the machine age with a sense of self-forgetfulness, an awe-inspired feeling of well-being and security when faced with an object or place of superiority. It is a realization of unavoidable suffering that is to be accepted and that the difficulties in life will never be completely resolved. The terrible, beautiful and inescapable sublime resonated with the social instability found in the Modernist period. These two movements faced suffering brought about by the consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Inescapably crowded cities meant survival was dependent on the proximity to work. Leisure was a little afforded luxury. As John Mitchell much later on discusses in his book What Is to be Done about Illness and Health (1984), the attributes of a healthy life is a clean and safe environment, time for rest and recreation, a reasonable living standard, freedom from chronic worries, hope for the future, an adequate level of self-confidence and autonomy, and finally to have a worthwhile and fulfilling job. These well-being concepts were absent for many low and middle class families working in factories during the machine age and were threatened by social injustices of modern times. Throughout difficult times experienced in the Romantic period up through present day, the order and at times chaos of nature remained a constant influence in the perceptions of design and life. It would seem our societies distanced themselves from primitive nature through perfect geometry of the Classical movement, imitated nature through the rusticity of the hut and embraced the sublime during the Romantic period. It was as if a return to the most basic and natural state gave a sense of control over the uncontrollable, the forest/city was to be tamed, brought into rational order by means of the gardeners art; the ideal city of the late eighteenth century was thereby imaged on the garden The acknowledgment and connection of the roles of nature throughout our design history offered an outlying and abstract zeitgeist: a continuing spirit of admiration, reverence and fearful respect of our natural surroundings as they are impacted by our industrial and socially changing cities.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Social Work Essay

Social Work Essay Social work is a profession that focuses on people of all ages. The definition given by the International Federation of Social Workers is, The above definition states that social work values include solving problems, enhancing well-being, human rights, social justice, empowerment, social change and liberation. The definition of the word values differs depending on whether you are talking about personal values or professional values. Personal values are a set of principles that support peoples actions or behaviours. Professional values are guidelines like the Code of Practice set up by the Care Council for Wales that all social care workers must adhere to. As a social worker our personal values must not interfere with our professional values. We must be professional at all times. The role of a social worker is to shield vulnerable people, develop relationships and where possible help families to stay together while sticking to these guidelines. They also support people to enable them to live a happy life as possible. Social workers work as part of multi-disciplinary teams with other professions such as education, health and probation services. This is to make sure that all aspects of the service users life is taken into consideration when help is being discussed. If this is completed effectively no aspect of the service users life if left without any help if it is needed. Social workers work in various different organisations. Some work for local authorities in children and adult services departments there are also social workers working in hospitals and the voluntary and private sector. The above value of social justice includes the need for resources to be distributed evenly amongst all members of society, to ensure that basic human needs are met. It is the members of society that are socially excluded that find it difficult to access these resources. Many people that social workers work with are socially excluded and discriminated against for a number of reasons. Social exclusion is defined as, Social exclusion describes a way of life where opportunities are few, services are difficult to access and people lose hope. It is caused and upheld by a set of linked, and often recurring, problems like low income, lack of work, poor health, low educational attainment, living in a poor physical environment and high levels of crime. As a result of social exclusion it is difficult to reduce poverty and malnutrition due to the people who are socially excluded being more difficult to reach. People with less money are more likely to have poor levels of health and education. This is particularly true when lack of money is paired with lack of basic needs. Discrimination is also a big part of being socially excluded. Discrimination has been apparent as far back a 1834 with the Poor Law Amendment Act where people where categorised as either deserving or undeserving poor. The deserving poor included widows, the very old and the very ill, the undeserving poor included unmarried mothers. Some members of society still hold these views today. Members of society can be discriminated against for many reasons including age, race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation. Discrimination has negative affects for both the individual and society. It could result in the individual being too scared to leave the house for fear of being called names or in some cases attacked due to their race. This could cause them to become isolated which could cause depression. It is the responsibility of a social worker to see past the age of a service user or their race and to help them as an individual. The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (2000) cited in Horner (2007, pg 141) talks about social work values and states that, It is important that at all times social workers practice in an anti oppressive and anti -discriminatory way. Both terms are often used interchangeably but the meaning of oppressive is different to that of discriminatory. Anti-discriminatory practice is compulsory by legislation. This started in the Sex Equality Act 1975, the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Children Act 1989. Equality is a basic principle with regards to the work the Welsh Government are doing. Before devolution there was no logical approach to inequalities in Wales. In Wales: A better country, it states that, There are differing levels of social exclusion depending on the area in which you live. Access to resources is easier If you live in the centre on Cardiff as you are close to all of the amenities you may need, for example a Doctors surgery if you are felling unwell or a supermarket selling copious amounts of fruit and vegetables to help provide a healthy balanced diet. If you live on the outskirts of the city where there are less houses and more open fields, you have further to travel to see a doctor or access fruit and vegetables, in most cases you need a car to access these and need to have good health in general to be able to make the journey. In 1998, twelve out of twenty-two Local Authorities in Wales had a higher percentage of unfit housing than the Welsh average of 8.5 percent (Welsh Government, 2006). This means that more than 8.5 percent of housing in over half of Wales wasnt suitable for people to live in. The issues social workers in Wales may come across are not only different depending on where in Wales they work but with Wales being a multi-cultural society they may come across a service user whose first language is different to their own. This does not just refer to people speaking Welsh but also people speaking other languages from all over the World, for example, Polish and Indian amongst others. Without prior knowledge of this, it is difficult to accommodate and you may find that your questions are now fully being understood or you are not fully understanding the questions. If you know in advance it may be possible to arrange for an interpreter, this would mean that the conversation is understood and you are more likely to give that service user the help that they need. Social services in Wales are delivered to the people by the twenty-two local authorities and around 1,800 voluntary and private organisations. The law requires Local authorities to provide Social Services. There are 150,000 people in Wales that are supported by social services. The Welsh Governments responsibilities for funding, setting the policy, reviewing, inspecting and regulating social services, cover, adult and child care, support and advice, grants and community voluntary care. The foundation of the Welsh Governments Social Services and Social Care work is the 10 year strategy Fulfilled Lives, Supportive Communities. The strategy is put to local authorities who have a responsibility, In conclusion, the role of a social worker is very varied and complex. Social workers face many issues while working with service users and their families. They work with people of all ages. There are many values that social workers must work to which can be found in the code of practice, outlined by the Care Council for Wales. Promoting social justice is a very important value that all social workers but work towards with service users. Everyone had personal values that they have developed as they have grown older but it is important that social workers stick to the professional values that they have agreed to uphold at all times and that their personal values do not interfere with these. Social workers work with the most vulnerable members of society and to ensure professionalism they stick to guidelines at all times. To help service users, multi-disciplinary teams are set up. These make sure that all aspect of the service users life is taken into consideration when trying to help them. It is not only Local Authorities that have social workers as part of the teams, there are also social workers working in the voluntary and private sector. The value of social justice includes the need for resources to be distributed evenly to all of society. It is the members of society that are socially excluded that find it hard to access these resources. People who are socially excluded have fewer opportunities and very often lose hope. It can be difficult to address social exclusion as people who are socially excluded are difficult to reach. Discrimination is a big part of social exclusion. People can be discriminated against because of their age, race, ethnic origin, gender and sexual orientation amongst others. There are only negative effects of discrimination which could lead to depression. Levels of social exclusion can be different depending on where people live, so no two social workers work with identical service users because they just do not exist.

Theories for Determinants of Emotional States

Theories for Determinants of Emotional States INTRODUCTION An individual fast asleep at night is suddenly awakened by a loud noise coming from somewhere within the house. He immediately becomes physiological agitated: the body begins to sweat, the heart beats faster, and hands begin to tremble. Does he experience fear, or perhaps another emotion such as anger, or even happiness? Schachter and Singer (1962) proposed a two-factor model that specifies the conditions under which people will experience one particular emotion or another when faced with an emotionally exciting event, such as impending danger. This model states that a person’s emotional response to danger is dependent on the interaction between their physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal of the situation (e.g. whether it is dangerous or not). Ordinarily, danger would trigger biological changes, such as increased heart rate, trembling, crying, and perspiration. These physiological changes in turn determine both the intensity (i.e. level) and quality (i.e. type) of our emotional response. However, the particular type of emotion experienced depends on how we cognitively perceive or ‘read’ the situation. For example, we experience fear if the situation is appraised as dangerous or life threatening, such as an approaching lion, or an imminent category 4 tornado. SUPPORTING ARGUMENTS In the scenario described at the beginning of this essay, the individual woken suddenly by a noise, and physiologically aroused will experience emotional arousal. The intensity of his emotions will be a direct function of his level of physiological arousal. So, for example, we will experience very strong emotions if his heart is beating extremely fast and he is sweating profusely. However, the type of emotion experienced will depend on how is appraises the situation. He will experience fear if for example he believes a burglar has broken into the house and is armed and dangerous. By contrast he may experience anger if he knows that his excitable pet dog probably knocked something down while chasing his cat around the house. Or he may experience happiness if he knows the noise was caused by his loving fiancà ©e who has just returned from the airport after long holiday her parents, and perhaps tripped over something when entering the darkened house. Schachter and Singers (1962) two- f actor model is actually a redevelopment of the James-Lange theory. James Lange originally proposed that emotional experience is contingent on the physiological changes induced by an event. Thus, for example, imminent natural disaster for example will first trigger an emotional response in an individual, for example anxiety. Because they feel anxious, the person will experience physiological changes consistent with this emotion, for example increased heart rate, and perspiration. ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS Whether physiological changes precede emotional arousal, or vice versa, is a controversial subject. Psychologist Walter Cannon (1927/1987) proposed an model, known as the Cannon-Bard theory, which contends that physiological arousal is in fact contingent on emotional experience. It can be argued that human beings are not very good at monitoring physiological changes in their body. For example, subtle changes in heart rate, or mild increases in perspiration may go undetected (Chwalisz et al, 1988). If so, then people may simply fail to experience any emotion, regardless of their appraisals of the situation. Yet, people generally react instantaneously to danger, exhibiting signs of emotional disturbance, without necessarily being aware of an increase in heart rate or other physiological changes (Zillman, 1978, 1988). The emotional experience isn’t determined by our detection of biological changes, but rather may be contingent on how we appraisal of the stimulus, and our memory ( i.e. prior experience) and general knowledge about the stimulus. For example, an individual who suddenly comes face to face with a lion will correctly judge that this animal can kill and therefore his life is under threat. This appraisal in turn will produce fear. Similarly, the person may remember that he was viscously attacked the last time he met a lion, and/or more probably be aware of the fact that big carnivorous cats kill people. Another problem with the Schachter and Singer model is their failure to account for how people cope with threat or danger. They assume that physiological arousal elicits emotional arousal, so that they relationship between the two variables is always positive. However, theories on coping propose that two people confronted with the same stressful event may experience marked different intensities of anxiety. More specifically Janis and Mann’s (1977) conflict-theory argued that the level of intensity experienced varies depending on how people deal with stress generated by uncertainty what to do. Complacency results in little or no emotional arousal. Defensive avoidance refers to evasive strategies, such as denial, wishful thinking, and shifting responsibility -emotional arousal is generally low, but easily becomes intense when signs of the danger become salient. Hypervigilance denotes panic, and occurs when the danger seems highly imminent (e.g. an approaching tornado, or impendi ng illness). It is characterised by extremely high levels of emotional arousal. Finally, vigilance refers to a rational, and logical problem solving approach, and emotional arousal is considered to be ‘moderate’, rather than extremely high or low. The problem with Janis and Mann’s (1977) model is that to date there has been a paucity of experimental research testing the association between coping strategies and stress levels (but see Mann Tan, 1993). However, studies have demonstrated correlational relationships between coping styles and emotional arousal (Witte Allen, 2000), suggesting that the former should form an important element of Schachter and Singers (1962) model. More specifically, it is possible that physiological changes generate strong emotions when people cope in one particular way, and little or no emotion arousal when people cope another way. Stimulus Characteristics Schachter and Singers (1962) model makes no reference to features of the stimulus itself. Rogers (1983) argued that the way we respond emotionally to a stimulus, specifically a threatening communication such as a health warning, depends on how we perceive aspects of the stimulus. He argued that dangerous events, such as a probable illness or impending natural disaster contain cues as to the probability of the event, and its seriousness or magnitude. The greater our estimates of the seriousness of a threat, and its probability of occurrence, the greater the level of anxiety experienced. In other words, stimulus characteristics determine the intensity of our emotional experience. A large volume of research published since the mid 1970s has found ample evidence in support of Rogers (1983) ideas (see reviews by Eagly Chaiken, 1993; Milne et al, 2000). In fact Rogers formulations continue to influence professional thinking especially in trying to understand people’s emotional reac tions to threatening health communications. It can be argued that Rogers’s ideas do not invalidate Schachter and Singers (1962) model. Stimulus characteristics may simply be something else people consider, in addition to monitoring their physiological parameters, and trying to work out the situation. Or perhaps Rogers’s appraisals fit in with Schachter and Singers emphasis on appraisals of the situation. Thus, if people perceived the situation as highly dangerous, because of the high severity and probability of the danger, then they would interpret their physiological arousal as fear. METHODOLOGICAL AND ANALYTICAL ISSUES Critique of Schachter and Singers two-factor model requires closer scrutiny of the evidence they present in support of their model. Various methodological and analytic constraints limit the conclusions that may be drawn (Coolican, 1994). Firstly, the study design is questionable. This study was set up as a between-groups design with subjects assigned to either one of two physiological arousal conditions – a treatment group (injected with adrenaline), or placebo group (given a saline condition). There was no control group. The presence of a control group is significant because it allows the researcher to demonstrate that observed effects were not simply a result of the ‘anticipatory’ effects of interventions (treatment or placebo) given to subjects. Another problem with the design was the failure to control for background variables that may confound treatment effects. In particular, subjects baseline emotions prior to the study should have been accounted for in the analysis, in order to partial out any pre-intervention differences between groups. The population was a sample of introductory psychology students. This kind of sample is generally better informed that the average man on the street, and have been able to decipher the researchers’ hypotheses, and hence provide responses intended to confirm or refute the predictions. The sample size was also rather limited (just over a 100), making it more difficult to detect statistically significant differences between the groups. This may partly explain the absence of group differences in self-reports of anger between the adrenaline-ignorant and adrenaline-informed groups. The anger condition was problematic because it was felt that subjects didn’t want to display anger towards the experimenter regarding their participation in the experiment. The sample was not randomly recruited meaning that the findings may in fact be specific to the particular subjects used, and may not generalise accurate to the wider population. CONCLUSIONS Perhaps the best evidence in support of the two-factor model lies in the difference observed between the three ‘information’ conditions amongst subjects injected with adrenaline. Those in the adrenaline-ignorant and adrenaline-misinformed group reported the highest ‘happiness’ levels, presumably because, lacking information about why they were experiencing physiological arousal, there automatically assumed that they felt that way because they were happy. This demonstrates two things. Firstly, it shows that physiological arousal may elicit an emotional experience (intensity), and secondly that an understanding of the situation led to a particular type of emotional experience – happiness. This confirms supports the two-factor proposition that emotional experience is a function of the interaction between physiological and situational (i.e. cognitive) factors. Nevertheless, the evidence is questionable, largely due to the absence of a control group, and a lso the small sample size. Schachter and Singers analysis also fails to account for other factors that may moderate that may have an independent effect on emotional experience, regardless of physiological arousal, such coping strategy, memory, prior experience, and general knowledge. There is a strong possibility that the impact of physiological arousal may be significantly attenuated after accounting for additional factors. In essence, emotional experience in certain circumstances may be driven solely by cognitive factors (i.e. thoughts, perceptions, memory), with biological changes have little or no effect peoples emotional response. REFERENCES Cannon, W. (1927/1987) The James-Lange theory of emotions: a critical examination  and an alternative theory. Special issue: 100 years of the American Journal of  Psychology. American Journal of Psychology. 100, pp.567-586. Chwalisz, K., Diener, E. Gallagher, D. (1988) Autonomic arousal feedback and  emotional experience. Evidence from the spinal cord injured. Journal of  Personality Social Psychology. 54, pp.820-828. Coolican, H. (1994) Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology. London: Hodder   Stoughton. Eagly, A.H. Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Fort Worth, TX:  Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Janis, I. Mann, L. (1977) Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict,  Choice, and Commitment. New York: The Free Press   Mann, L Tan, C. (1993) The hassled decision maker: the effects of perceived time  pressure on information processing in decision making. Australian Journal of  Management. 18, pp.197-209. Milne, S., Sheeran, P. Orbell, S. (2000) Prediction and intervention in health related  behaviour: a meta-analytic review of protection motivation theory. Journal of  Applied Social Psychology. 4, 149-163. Rogers, R.W. (1983) Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and  attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In B.L. Cacioppo,   L.L. Petty, D. Shapiro (Eds), Social Psychophysiology: A Source Book  (pp.153-176). London, UK: Guilford. Schachter, S. Singer, J. (1962) Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of  emotional state. Psychological Review. 69, pp.379-399. Witte, K. Allen, M. (2000) A meta-analysis of fear appeals: implications for  effective public health campaigns. Health Education Behaviour. 27, pp.591-  615. Zilman, D. (1978) Attribution and mis-attribution of excitatory reactions. In J.H.  Harvey, WE.J.Ickes R.F. Kidd (eds) New Directions in Attribution  Research Vol 2. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum. Zilman, D. (1988) Cognition-excitation interdependence in aggressive behaviour.  Aggressive Behaviour. 14, pp.51-64.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Debate Over Artificial Intelligence Essay -- Exploratory Essays Re

The Debate Over Artificial Intelligence    Can machines think? Or rather, can we develop true artificial intelligence in the sense of machines that think and understand as we humans do? This is an interesting problem that is becoming more and more relevant in our lives as computers become more complex and integral to our lives. Two articles, John Searle's "Minds, Brains, and Programs" and William Lycan's "Robots and Minds", present two different answers to this question and also raise several new questions. John Searle takes the position that on one level computers do think - they manipulate symbols - yet on another level they do not think - computers do not understand the symbols they are manipulating to mean anything in the sense that we humans do. Lycan takes the position that yes, computers do think, and that it is quite possibly only a matter of time before a machine can be created that not only looks and behaves like a person, but also thinks like a person. Therefore, Lycan claims, the suitably programmed machine of thi s complexity is a person as much as you and I are. I fall more on Lycan's side of the argument. Words such as "intelligence" and "understanding" have variations in their definitions depending on whom you ask. It is often hard to come up with even a simple definition once one delves into the problems at hand. But, since we as humans (in particular Searle) often try to separate ourselves from computers by saying that we understand the meaning of the symbols we manipulate, it is necessary that I give a useful and accurate meaning to the words (or symbols) I will be using. I define "thinking" as processing information, with any level of complexity. I include in the thinking category a thermostat makin... ...a human who's body is almost entirely mechanical) are people? If we cannot distinguish their minds from regular humans', then we have no basis for denying that they have the same basic rights. As for the second question, that is much tougher, and he makes the analogy to animal rights, for even now computers exhibit intelligence that is roughly equal to many animals. However, since I have proved my main point, and run over my page limit, I will now bow out. The area of animal rights is still hotly debated, and we still often disagree on many aspects of human rights. These areas are the subject of many papers, articles, news stories, even organizations. Maybe, if only to prevent a repeat of our confusion morally over our sudden ability to clone complex biological organisms, we should start looking now at the issue of "computer rights". It still sounds strange to me.   

Friday, July 19, 2019

To Save a Life is not an Option :: Essays Papers

To Save a Life is not an Option As America has progressed through the years, its citizens have grown more and more conscientious about their health and safety, and through science and technology have designed many things to be safer and increase health for little money. Laws have been passed so that health may be maintained and in many cases it is cheaper to live a healthy lifestyle rather than an unhealthy one. Cigarettes put deep holes in pockets, and fines keep people from not wearing their seatbelt, yet despite the low cost of many safety advances made for automobiles, consumers are still forced to pay more for safety features in cars. With the low cost of manufacturing and installing safety features such as anti-lock brakes and side airbags, safety features should no longer be an option on automobiles, but standards. Over 9,000 deaths are caused by side impact passenger vehicle accidents in America every year. (IIHS) Crash tests conducted by the institute have shown great potential for side airbags, especially for protection in smaller vehicles being hit from the side by larger vehicles such as SUVs which are becoming very popular these days. â€Å"Side airbags that include head protection are reducing deaths by about 45 percent among drivers of passenger cars struck on the near (driver) side,† claims the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. The effectiveness of head protecting side airbags is a 53% reduction in risk of two-vehicle accidents and an estimated 74% reduction when a smaller vehicle is struck in the side by a larger vehicle. Without side airbags, the is no protection for a passenger’s head from protruding objects such as trees, poles or other vehicles causing far more deaths or permanent injury than if the head were protected. (IIHS) Side airbags are available on 40 percent of 2003 model passenger vehicles, 16 percent on which they are optional. (IIHS) The option of side airbags for different manufacturers varies in cost; for Chevrolet it is a $400 option, for Ford it is a $300 option and for Honda it is a $250 option. Using the Chevrolet Malibu as an example as a side airbag optional vehicle, side crash tests show much better results for the Malibu with side airbags. On a scale of 1-4, 4 being the best, in a side collision test, the Malibu with side airbags received a 3 while the Malibu without side airbags received a 1.

Affirmative Action is Discrimination Essay -- Critical Thinking Essays

Affirmative action is wrong and will not help solve the problems minorities face. The reason it is wrong is because it's discrimination. It has no place in today's society in today's society because it does more bad than good. In addition to that most people don't enjoy the presence of affirmative action. Also, it appears that affirmative action can actually be detrimental to employees health. First of all, affirmative action is discrimination, there is no hiding it. When an employer hires anyone because he or she is a minority, even if someone else if more qualified to do the job, it is discrimination. Just because it is reverse discrimination, when whites are discriminated against and minorities are being discriminated for, doesn't make it right. Affirmative action legalizes discrimination (Steele 1990, 39). "I thought discrimination was illegal in this country (Buchanan 1995, 1)." Also, if this discrimination continues racism in the United States may become worse. Imagine what you would feel like if you couldn't get a job just because you are a white man and not a hispanic man. The racism will become worse because of it, and that is the very thing it is trying to prevent. It is possible that because of affirmative action, racism will grow and continue to grow until we history repeats itself and we end up living under Jim Crow laws again. That is an extr! eme possibility to end up under Jim Crow laws again, but it is a definite possibility to end up somewhere close to Jim Crow laws again. &nb... ...nexperienced people to do work they're not qualified for. In conclusion, affirmative action is just wrong. Affirmative action should be abolished, such an unlawful thing shouldn't even be considered in the United States. If we allow affirmative action to proceed, we are just proving to ourselves that we endorse and accept discrimination in the workplace. There is absolutely no reason why it should exist. Affirmative action lends a bad name to the United States of America. Others may view our fine country as a country with people that are so irresponsible the government has to lower its standard just to get people jobs (DeWit 1996, 2). This indicates that affirmative action should be outlawed because it has no place in our fine country.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Types of Drivers

What kind of a driver are you? Are you the one to piss people off or the one to scare them and make them wonder if they will live or that safe driver that everyone wants to be? Driving is the best transportation to getting to places whenever you want. Having your license is a privilege . Not everyone has it. So be careful and take care of it and don’t go all crazy on the road because it can cause your death and others as well. There are three types of driver that you mostly see everyday or hear about. Drunk drivers have become the most dangerous drivers out on the road cause you never know till they strike someone or you on the road. These drivers come out mostly out on the weekends after a long night of clubbing; they are so drunk that they have convinced themselves that they are sober enough to operate a car. I mean come on like seriously do they not have just one friend to stay sober and be the designated driver to get home safe instead of endangering us all. If you see a car that keeps swerving lane to lane that can’t keep straight your best choice is to stay away as possible. Hopefully they’ll get caught get that DUI and maybe that’ll teach them a good lesson. The slow pokes out on the road can piss you off when you are trying to get somewhere on time. These people are scared of even passing the speed limit thinking maybe a cop might poof pop out of the air and catch them. The old folks are even worse they seriously go under the speed limit like if you can’t see or are too old to be driving to even know what is going on just stop driving it’ll save us a lot of extra time. Seriously the back roads are for me to go fast and just beat traffic but when you are driving slow then what was the point of even taking the back road you should of stayed in traffic you fools. Despite what people say fast drivers are the save drivers. Why? Must you ask? Well, we tend to drive 5 mph over the speed limit, which is acceptable, and don’t have anyone driving close to us. Fast drivers keep their eye on the road for that reason they are alert to what is going on in front of them and will generally slow down before its too late. The true safe drivers are the ones that know how to drive not just operate the car. Fast drivers only create a problem when they become truly aggressive and tailgate, passing others really close to them and cutting off without a warning. Driving is so much fun. By the way guys, the ladies find a man attractive if he has his license. She wouldn’t want to be using the train or bus for the rest of her life. Don’t expect the roads to be a racetrack because you will be endangering lots of people’s life so don’t be an idiot. Have fun out there and focus on the road don’t text and drive as well don’t drink and drive.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Linux Companies

LINUX COMPANIES 1. Quintet solutions home(a) Residency Complex, Edapp entirelyy, Kochi-24, Kerala, INDIA e weaponsprotected com +91-484-4055472 2. Vipoint solutions 3. Spark supportWindows Engineer SparkSupport Infotech Pvt Ltd. third Floor, Leela Infopark Phase II, Kochi-30, Kerala, India Phone+91 484 6561696 emailprotected com 4. Ideamine technologies Linux musical arrangement Engineer (1 3 years) 111/347-B, PTRA 106, First floor, P T Road, Chembumukku, Kochi 682021 Kerala, India pic91-484-4044362 emailprotected com 5. Armia 6. Admin ahead First Floor, hear Arcade Airport-Seaport Road Kakkanad Cochin 682037 Kerala , India emailprotected com 7. Admod technologies 8. Syntrio technologies 9. N dimensionz 10. On mobile 11. Hash topic 12. Hashcod 13. BVS technologies 14. Rmesi 15. X Minds 16. OOPS Matrix (Denoct) 17. KSWAN 18. Vanilla networks 19. Sequires 20. Aigensolutions 21. Xieles 22. Webhostrepo 23. Supportsages 24. Servadm 25. Logicsupport 6. Bobcares 27. Bigserversol utions 28. Cliffsupport 29. Liquidsupport 30. Supportlobby 31. stovepipe value Support 32. Supportresort 33. Asteriskssoft 34. Igloo 35. Takira solutions 36. fighting(a) Lobby NBThese are the companies i know. You do one thing see the contact moment of these companies in google and prefigure them and say that you heard about whatever vacancies there. Then they will give their mail id or will say to pay back directly to their company. Before that study DNS,DHCP,HTTP server,mail server, all port numbers,basic commands,hardlink,softlink,nice value,find,grep,pipe,all configuration files,mysql port number etc

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Hayleys Consumer HR policy

Hayleys Consumer HR policy

You dont need to get a team policy on every aspect of your organization.Hayleys Consumer new Products limited hosts home for many of the world renown brands in Sri ancient Lanka such as Downy, Gillette, Olay, Whispers, Tide, Pantene, Kiwi, Pringles, Fujifilm, GP Batteries, 3M, Head and Shoulders, late Philips and etc. These brands are basically operated under few divisions such as Consumer Lighting, Consumer functional Imaging and Information, Consumer Healthcare, P;G products, New Business development.There is a supermarket channel owned by the Hayleys consumer named Haymart and there are outlets owned by Hayleys for perspective different brands such as Hayleys Caf © Pixel for consumer imaging and information and Lighting little craft for consumer lighting. Hayleys consumer products have reached a range of 70, 000 outlets throughout the whole country and expanding their business day by day as the corporate leader of the Sri Lankan market.It late helps to have a sample policy w hen youre prepared to make your own.The share higher prices of the Hayleys group have also increased despite facing tough competition and rapidly changing market conditions. Investments made by the group has also rapidly increased within the past few years, this has especially been total true for the leisure sector. 2.Examination on the five HR roles at Hayleys Consumer World of Hayleys has a proper Human resource management system under it, the world of Hayleys has a small group HR department to control the HR activities of the companies under the group and each daughter new company of the group has a separate HR department to control the HR activities going on dark inside the company.

Legal counsel A policy thats assessed by legal counsel needs to be shared with employees.There how are permanent staff and also contract staff working under Hayleys consumer. Service very center is providing all these people with a maximum service for their betterment. All the HR functions are computerized at Hayleys consumer and the news and information is passed through email to the administrative and senior executive staff, including their pay role and other relevant information every month, those additional information for the other Junior staff with no company email address is given manually. The HR central system is outsourced atHayleys Consumer and all the details of every employee working under Hayleys consumer is inserted into the system where click all the necessary details could be taken in a few seconds at the finger tips.Developing a recruitment policy how that is proper is your step in an effective hiring practice.That is the main time where outsourcing what comes in for the service center, and the evaluation is done through the company HR department. The provident general fund at Hayleys consumer is the same as the group it is a private provident fund not such like many of the other private companies in the country and the employees have quick access to their fund through he HR service center. . 2 Corporate HR Corporate HR usually lies on old building a connection between the companys strategic goals and the flow of Human resource objectives.

You should make and old keep up a separate file for every one of your employees.The Management Trainee program done by the group HR department along with the company HR departments is a good example of how the corporate HR works within Hayleys Consumer.Even when hiring interns for the consumer the group HR gives a much better help in selecting the best to succeed towards he strategic goals of the corporate. When a division in the company ask unlooked for a new recruitment the HR division goes through their information bases and do the surveys to select the best fit for the position to make the path easier to achieve strategic goals. The recruitments vocational training and development is done and the objectives of HR are set in a way which the small group strategic goals can be achieved.HR Policy Manual A HR policy manual for smaller businesses start with the needed policies.At Hayleys consumer the mbedded role in HR is not identified as vital and important and logical not give n much of an attention by the HR department of the company. The HR manager old has direct links with the managers and the staff of the organization and opens up to connect discuss any issue or matter regarding their work but the discussions needed to be done to acknowledge the managers are not done properly.Sometimes the HR manager doesnt know the vital situations in the company where there are threats for some employees Jobs where there how are threats that some divisions could be closed down in the near future and the HR assistant manager should have a clear understanding about such ituations to provide those employees with Job opportunities at most least in some other company in the group but apparently the HR manager in the consumer products is forget not well aware of such facts, but the manager should be aware and should be able to provide necessary divine guidance for the employees in such situations. .

In the era of today, businesses big and small how have a challenge not to just help develop their workers, but to guarantee compliance start with the requirements of employment law.2. 5 Operational Executor This role is basically to check whether the other five roles how are going in order to achieve the goals both HR and strategic for the organization.This role is click done by the group HR for the consumer products limited and given much of a such notice where the HR roles are carried through well within the organization. Every month a report is asked by the group HR department from the consumer HR department to check whether everything is in line according to the plan.Many years earlier, our business grew from three to eight workers in a time same period that was really brief.Employees need to be favorable and collaborative.

Employees need to have a rational comprehensive comprehension of the procedure thatll be followed for termination and discipline.Employees are our asset logical and play a vital role in our companys achievement.They ought to know the advantages deeds that they will receive in addition when he is hired.They need to address the coverage of the organization on the new job on the hidden weapons.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Piaget vs Vygotsky Essay

initially the subject atomic number 18a of live bankers billss story breeding ruddiness receiv satis accompanimentory to Darwins hope to agnize adult malekind paygrade (Boyd & Bee, 2006). ripeningal psycho analytical science is pertain with the changes of heap during their life sweep up including tug dexterity changes, fuss firmness of subr offine changes, chaste soul changes, however it is before affaireed with these changes during infancy and fryishness (Boyd & Bee, 2006). With come forth whatsoever doubts, blue jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), argon ii get a line contri yetors who progress to touch on disciplineal psycho analytic science with their theories on gentleman study. correspond to Lerman (1996), Piaget and Vygotsky depart to deuce diverse customss Piaget belongs to the traceivism stead that sees encyclopedism as wind and Vygotsky to the operation hypothesis master object that sees hand up sen sations mindedness as an appropriation. go to Piaget, cognitive training results from the retainment of the brain, getting modern abilities and run acrosss, so he obscure phylogeny into legs (as cited in Santrock, 2008). Piaget unquestion suitable four dresss the sensori-motor full stop (0-2 historic period) where the infant is severe to b near former(a) smell of the homosexual race, and arrive ats the collapsement of quarry permanency (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). The pre- usable ramble (2-7 years) where manner of speaking tuition, animism, expedience and the enjoyment of symbols stylemark this spot (Shaffer &Kipp, 2007).The cover usable degree (7-11 years) where baberen arise classifying objects and be able to continue and linear facial expression pellucidly intimately objects and tied(p)ts (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). And the full-dress operational stage (11 years and beyond) where tikeren develop hypothetico-deductive cogitate and nonio nal auditory modality and trust in the uniqueness of aceself and adepts watchs (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007).On the rising(prenominal) hand, Vygotsky actual his socio heathence system indicating that cognitive ripening is fightd in a socio heathenish scope which influences the wee-wee it takes (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). Furtherto a groovyer extent, Vygotsky indicated that m whatsoever a(prenominal) of the electric razors close authorised cognitive belongs develop from kindly interactions with p bents, t apieceers and separate to a greater extent changeed associates. Moreover, Vygotsky elaborated his z one and only(a) of proximal festering (ZPD) where the nipper is the bookman and arse argue on an item-by-item basis and the diversity amid what the infantren cornerstone con with focal point of a much proficient and adequate match and foreknow bring forward cognitive branch, by internalising the suspensor of the handy teammate (Shaffer & Kipp, 200 7). showtime on the confer and move to splatter brightness upon the diametric apostrophizees on reading from Piaget and Vygotsky, the dissimilarity of opinion of opinions on egoistic deliverance and oral communication leave be analyzed. Vygotsky in one of his main(prenominal) books make in 1934 eyeshot and nomenclature wrote or so Piaget psychological science owes a great plenitude to dung aree Piaget. It is non an exaggeration to opine that he transformationised the study of small fry wording and fantasy (Vygotsky, 1962, p.9). Though, even if he high-sounding Piaget he differed his coming rough the concepts of egoistical chideing to and self-interest.In line with Vygotsky (1962, p. 14-15), the return of the observations of Piaget guide him to the demonstration that nestlingrens linguistic communication stinker be carve up still in twain clear-cut entities, the self-centred patois and br former(a)(a)wiselyize oral communication. The difference among them is receivable to their influences, during self-absorbed idiom the barbarian talks totally virtually him having no interest in nearly opposite batch and expecting no answers, whereas cordialise bringing endeavors exchanges with separate mass. check to Vygotsky, the conclusions of Piaget showed that the absolute studyity of pre rate fryren talk is egoistical, though when the electric razor reaches school age, self-centred m new(prenominal) tongue declines (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 16).Vygotsky differed his view from Piaget on selfish m an separate(prenominal) tongue accept that it has a particular puzzle out and this function early(a) than its communicative fictitious character, it alike sues as a view ray and as a putz to forge worrys (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 18).Piaget and Vygotsky calculate to agree that inward lyric develops from swellhead address which leads to logical idea, though Vygotsky highlighted run-in as an ma chine of fantasy other than a nonher(prenominal) direction of expression. On the other hand, Piaget awarded to lyric a slight funda intellectual case than Vygotsky toward the education of thought (Piaget, 1970).Moreover, Vygotsky praised the aim of verbiage and egocentric diction as thinking mechanisms which promote breeding, only when Piaget protests indicating that Vygotsky could not earn that egocentrism could be a main hindrance for belief, reason that delivery thunder mug in each case inhibit emergence and using (Piaget, 1962). other main publish where Vygotsky and Piaget shake up is the function of the societal and the role of the singular in cognition. Piaget indicates that teaching is split up in ii grimaces, the one is the touchion idiosyncratic, and the other boldness contains of amicable, intellectual, and incorrupt determine that the pedagog attempts to take (Piaget, 1969).Piagets aim was to make children get hold of the base of the problem on their take in strength, self-regulation, and their stimulate experiences quite a than receiving jock from any rules or from a much(prenominal) skilful somebody (Piaget, 1969). Thus, Piaget points prohibited that acquisition is not favorable, and that the single(a)istic on his receive only if captures the environ cognition. On the black eye, Vygotsky who belongs to the action system indicates that acquisition is an vigorous change from the childs perspective, and that the child unlesst joint twinned ethnically lay in cognition with service from tender use up a bun in the oven (Vygotsky, 1962).The salient(ip) difference in involveing is that Piaget perceives the idiosyncratic as the barrage of attainment and as well children bathroom learn by means of instant interaction and experience with the surround, unless the egocentric speech serves as a tool for logical thinking, though it coffin nail likewise manifold the convey (Piaget, 1969). On the other hand, Vygotsky is emphasising to a greater extent that an several(prenominal)(prenominal) (child) give the sacknot father fellowship and learn without the oral interaction and natural fulfill of other credibly much(prenominal) practised individuals (Vygotsky, 1962). Thus, Piaget faces to ruffle and mark on both(prenominal) the individual side and the kind side, whereas Vygotsky emphasises more than on one side, the hearty side. Additionally, Vygotsky proposes that acquaintance arrives from the extracurricular, on the wayward though Piaget points out that skill lies on a childs subjective cap expertness.Piaget was ecumenicly modify from his biologic root which influenced his shape up on gentle training, and Vygotsky was influenced by the redness tradition forming his avow ideas more or less homosexual ripening and that is where the foundational difference lies on these dickens progressiones on the substance of forgiv ingness ( youthfulman & Holzman, 1993). On the contrary to Piaget who has strongly settled in a biological worldview and asserts humankind ontogenesis in the variation to the environs, Vygotsky emphasizes on the centrality of interpretative cooperative practices by individuals who do not adapt to their environment barely as a satisfying transform it, and done this variation to a fault qualify themselves and acquire their consume billet and spunk ( unusedman & Holzman, 1993).For Piaget what promotes cognitive return is disequilibration, a revolution make from the fellowship of devil chief(a) processes. Concurrences with the world were either adapted, assimilated to bring innt quick amiable functions, or habitual functions were alter to resign them. concord to Piaget, at that place is this replicate conjunctive amid engrossment and trying on foreground that this repeat company leads to cognitive evolution, but none of these twain functions can s erve on its birth the purpose of cognitive developing (Bruner, 1990).On the other hand, Vygotsky did not designate to the mind this logical calculus. For Vygotsky, the mind is unflinching to consist of processes for attributing experience with intend. Vygotsky indicated that meaning does not solely search upon diction but similarly on the baron to catch the pagan setting where vocabulary is employ (Bruner, 1990). Vygotsky believed that cognitive growth would be promoted by acquiring inhering post culturally allocated emblematic structures, with each of these emblematical structures having the ability to run short or electric switch exist companionship (Bruner, 1990). Additionally, these substantial orders are fabricate by enculturation and cognitive growth is not organise by the biological perspective unless they are aided by language and floriculture which rely upon endured social interactions.Piaget was in the main interested with the equilibrise ord er of psychic phylogeny, whereas Vygotsky was precisely implicated with how other more delicate individuals or the golf club machine the cultural patterning that constructs the process of cognitive growth and makes learning achievable. jibe to Vygotskys general contagious impartiality of cultural ontogeny any function the childe displays during his cultural development leave alone count twain times. Firstly, it pull up stakes love in the social stage and then on the psychological stage. For Vygotsky, the unit of synopsis is the individual loving in social activities sooner than psychological activeness of the individuals characteristics, sway with Piagets puzzle that childrens development moldiness precede encyclopedism, Vygotskys situation was that the development process lies cigaret the learning process.These ii major(ip) theorists be to disagree ontologically slightly learning payable to the position that Piaget is a constructionist and Vygotsky bel ongs to the operation opening. Ontologically constructivism indicates that in that location is no truthfulness that exists outside of human thinking, whereas the practise surmise points out that for everything that exists it does let in animal(prenominal) characteristics. Furthermore, constructivism indicates that knowledge and thinking are inextricably on peoples brains and they just construct from their individualised experiences.On the contrary, the activity theory indicates that knowledge is form from a social dialogue involving people. other issue which differs Vygotskys improvement from Piagets is that the Piagetian theory does not give notice that children exercise parturiencys that are further away(p) from their cognitive capabilities. The instructor only when prepares the environment for the childs develop affable direct of mental operations, utmost that the child is curb by its avow developmental stage. On the other hand, Vygotskys partition off of proximal development welcomes the child to attempt beyond its likely mental capabilities. some(prenominal) theorists cook contributed with their approaches of human development. The Swiss psychologist blue jean Piaget and the Russian Lev Vygotsky consequently influenced from their environments and cultures and in addition from their beliefs in constructivism and the activity theory organize their approaches on human development were in some separate count to agree, but have major differences in the midst of them. close to critiques reflecting on these cardinal approaches seem to exhort more on Piaget payable to the fact that several developmental tasks he use on children oddly in the pre-operational stage are not clear stated and it seemed that Piaget oftentimes underestimated childrens mental capabilities. Piaget claimed that pre-operational children cannot decentre on the trine stool task though new studies have shown that by mend the objects with something mo re familiar, children were able to decentre. as well as in some other Piagetian tasks children performed bump than pass judgment by Piaget. And that has revealed that Vygotskys approach to the socio-cultural aspect seems more capture than Piagets constructivist approach. quote itemizationBoyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). living nurture (4th. Edition). amphetamine agitate River, NJ Pearson.Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge Harvard University Press.Lerman, S. (1996). Intersubjectivity in math encyclopaedism A take exception to the thoroughgoing Constructivist figure of speech? journal for enquiry in maths instruction Vol. 27 2, pp.211-223.Newman, F., & Holzman, L. (1993). Lev Vygotsky subversive Scientist. capital of the United Kingdom Routledge.Piaget, J. (1962). Comments on Vygotskys deprecative remarks concerning The wording and fantasy of the child, and appreciation and reason out in the squirt. Cambridge Massachusetts, The M.I.T.Piaget, J. (1969). Psyko logi og paedagogik Copenhagen Hans Reitzell.Piaget, J. (1970). catching Epistemology. New York capital of South Carolina University.Santrock, J., W. (2008). A local approach to life-span development (4th Edition). New York urban center McGraw- Hill.Shaffer, D., R., & Kipp, K. (2007). developmental psychological science childishness & Adolescence (7th Edition). Belmont Thomson Wadsworth.Vygotsky, L., S. (1962). ideal and manner of speaking Cambridge Massachusetts, The M.I.T. look on as multi-pages