Saturday, August 31, 2019
Client Centered Therapy
Jessica Jeffers It is inevitable that in psychotherapy there are numerous theories. Theories arise out of scholarly investigations of ideas on human behavior. Human behavior is an extraordinarily interesting subject and therefore produces a plethora of ideas from a variety of theorists. These theorists are influenced by their education, culture, and time period. One of the most influential, empathetically understanding, theorists is Carl Rogers. His contributions to human behavior have changed many of the theories that preceded him, and contributed his theory to many theories that followed him.I want to explore Client/Person Centered Therapy. This is a type of therapy that was pioneered by Carl Rogers. This therapy is different because as the name suggests it solely focuses on the client. Ã¢â¬ËIn focusing on the client, the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings are deeply explored. The assumption is however, that the client was never able to have their feelings heard by the people surrounding t hem. Person Centered Therapy would allow the client to then be able to express their feelings openly.According to Strupp (1971), Ã¢â¬Å"psychotherapeutic relationship is in principle indistinguishable from any good human relationship in which a person feels fully accepted, respected, and prizedÃ¢â¬ (p. 39). Thus, there must be a therapeutic alliance between therapist and client. This therapeutic alliance should creative an environment for the client in which the client feels the therapist is judgment-free. I find that Roger's theory to be interesting and seemingly affective. It makes sense that a change in a clients negative relationship patterns would allow freedom for the client to express themselves emotionally.According to Strupp (1971), Ã¢â¬Å"The client, therefore, is not a patient who is sick and who is in need of treatment, but he is a person whose earlier experiences in life have made him defensive, severed him from free and open communication with his peers, and prevent ed him from realizing his potential as a fully functioning personÃ¢â¬ (p. 39). Thus, the client would have to be categorized with the assumption that he has experienced in his past Ã¢â¬Å"severed free and open communication with his peersÃ¢â¬ . This would mean that a client with clear and reciprocated communication with her loved ones would not find se in Client Centered Therapy. According to Truscott (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"our efforts to feel good about ourselves we tend to try to incorporate others' expectations? thereby denying our true selves and adopting instead a conditional self? resulting in feelings of disorganization and emotional pain. If, on the other hand, we experience genuineness, nonjudgmental caring, and empathy in our relationships with others, then we can achieve our potential as personsÃ¢â¬ (p. 70-71). Thus, a client with emotional support can manage his feelings easier then someone without any emotional support.This still leaves the client with emotional support with the expectation that she should not have any difficulty with expressing her emotions. It is apparent that Rogers main goal was to create an environment for the client in which he will eventually be able to independently understand and express his feelings. Truscott (2010) reported according to the Ã¢â¬Å"person-centered, humanistic worldviewÃ¢â¬ that, When we are fully functioning we are then able to make healthy decisions and set goals for ourselves that are congruent with our personal possibilities.The therapist, therefore, does not set goals for the client of solving or managing problems. Rather, clients who are able to become more fully functioning will decide for themselves how best to cope with problems and participate in a satisfying life. (p. 71) This independence that Roger's wanted to invoke in his clients has functionality. A person who was not able to function independently will be able to do so, which in turn can have powerful effects. The question is however, w ithout therapeutic goals the lines of recovery seem to be infinite.Thus, if a client is not moving toward a tangible goal, then she is not moving forward. As an argument to that, I would contend that the client would move forward because they would progress in their ability to recognize their emotional turmoilÃ¢â¬â¢s. Rogers may not have worked with his clients to produce and obtain goals, but he did have a ultimate goal in his therapeutic work. According to Rogers, Ã¢â¬Å"They [clients] are then able to accept themselves as they are and to commit themselves to becoming more like they can and want to beÃ¢â¬ (as cited in Truscott, 2010, p. 2). The client is in turn aided by the therapist in becoming as authentic as possible. Thus this authenticity would provide the client with the ability to be true to themselves and their feelings. I find this to be useful in allowing the client to process their internal feelings, externally. According to Truscott (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"Therapists must be willing and able to listen without prejudice, judgment, or agenda if the client is to have any chance of feeling truly understood and accepted.Positive feelings, negative feelings, and silence must be acceptable to the therapistÃ¢â¬ (p. 73). This is interesting because it requires that the therapists become void of any judgments. To me this seems like a difficult task to accomplish because of the nature of judgments. Understandably so, the therapist would automatically make judgments of the client, as a natural inclination even with the best intentions against judgments. So, what kind of a therapist must one be to establish a patient centered therapy?According to Truscott (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"Because person-centered therapy is, at its heart, a highly collaborative approach, three qualities of the therapist must be evident in relationship with the clientÃ¢â¬ (p. 73). Truscott (2005) reports that these qualities are: genuineness, unconditional positive regard and emphatic understa nding. Truscott (2005) explains, Ã¢â¬Å"Genuineness requires a significant depth of self- knowledge. It is only a fully functioning person who can be totally genuineÃ¢â¬ (p. 73). To add (1971) contends, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ he most basic ingredient of therapeutic success, is characterized by the therapist's openness to another person's experience and a keen awareness of himself and the client's experienceÃ¢â¬ (p. 41). , the therapist must be very aware of himself in order to be present on behalf of the client. Truscott (2005) also explains unconditional positive regard Ã¢â¬Å"It means that the client feels understood in a nonjudgmental wayÃ¢â¬ (p. 74). Thus, if the therapist is completely judgment free, the client is more likely to express themselves without a fear of being ridiculed for their thoughts.Lastly Truscott (2010) explains empathetic understanding, This means that the therapist senses accurately the feelings and personal meanings that the client is experiencing and com municates this understanding to the client. The following two things are important about this: (a) that the empathy be accurate and (b) that the empathy be made known to the client. (p. 74) It is important to understand that empathy is important in all therapeutic relationships. It is a core value a therapist must hold in order to create a proper alliance with the client.It is especially important with the client centered therapy, because empathy is a core concept in the client centered therapy. RogersÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical approach functioned well for the goals of the client finally being able to discover key themes about themselves. Accordingly Raskin, Rogers ;ump; Witty (2011) contend that Ã¢â¬Å"The common thread is the need to understand the client's relationship to the problem, illness, or self destructive behavior; to collaborate with the client in self-healing and growthÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ (p. 172).Thus, the therapist must combine with the client to put in a joint effort in the h ealing process. This collaboration seems most efficient because it does not allow for a false belief that the therapist will solve all of the client's problems. Instead, it should permit the client to feel that she has support to dive into emotions she might have been afraid to do so before entering client centered therapy. It is interesting to note according to Raskin et al. ( 2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Our basic practice [client centered therapy] remains true to the core conditions no matter who our client may be.We also assert that our ability to form an initial therapeutic relationship depends on our own openness to and appreciation of respect for all kinds of differenceÃ¢â¬ (p. 183). I believe that the cultural diversity that CCT maintains is important in a multiplicity open therapeutic environment. The implications for a non discriminatory form of therapy are that it can be used across populations. This allows for broader use of this theory and the chances for positive outcomes is incre ased because the availability.
Communication Exersise Formal Report Essay
By Business Consultant Executive summary: Mirror Image needs an overhaul in communication between management and workers. After collecting information collected through the CEO and a resent staff survey, it is apparent that certain things are restricting good communication. With the help of great pre-existing research this report identifies several major issues. Distrust of management has led to limited communication, as the workers feel this protects them. I suggest this course of action: 1. Create a transparent workplace and reassure staff about future redundancies. 2. Invest in communication courses for managers that deal with open conversation. 3. Actively encourage Ã¢â¬Ëtwo wayÃ¢â¬â¢ communication between managers and workers. 4. Promote team leaders (foremen) that communicate well. This report was commissioned by the CEO and will help identify the communication problems at Mirror Image, particularly between factory workers and managers. Firstly the report will bring together relevant information on the subject, secondly identify the problems with provided information and lastly it will suggest some causes of action to help improve communications at IM. 2.0 Analysis of communication: 2.1 Literature review: Communication Managers need more than technical skills, communication is a leaders main channel for inspiration and engagement, whilst helping avoid serious problems. Communication classes for management have been proven effective by large pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca, large amounts of evidence suggest educating managers about communication is very beneficial (Walters & Norton 2007). Communication classes for management can be tailored to address concerns. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s usually hard to identifying issues resulting in poor communication. Luckily there is a wealth of information on the subject. Newberry & Conrad (2010) delivered a journal dedicated to improving communication skills in the workplace. Relevance established, the authors list twenty four key communication guidelines to aim for. Relevant key ideas: * Initiate open Discussion(Organizational communication) * Create information networks Ã¢â¬Å" * Provide feedback Ã¢â¬Å" * Building trust(Interpersonal, involve positive verbal/non-verbal communication) Trust is gained by a manager, when subordinates have certainty about events. Certainty gained from open discussion, where both parties have a say. Trust leads to increased productivity (Bach, 2006). Ã¢â¬Å"The best disinfectant is sunshine (Allen, 2012)Ã¢â¬ Power Bases Gupta and Sharma (2008) believe Power bases play a pivotal role in worker compliance. They make a distinction between harsh power bases (HPB) and soft power bases (SPB). They conclude that SPB are more effective in conjunction with quality communication then HPB. The SPB categories are expert, referent, information and dependence legitimacy. The HPB categories are coercion, reward, position legitimacy (French & Raven 1959). Silence The theory Ã¢â¬Ëthe spiral of silenceÃ¢â¬â¢ by Noelle-Neumann (1974) talks about how in groups, individuals will not raise comments or arguments, when they feel their views arenÃ¢â¬â¢t shared by the other members. The idea is important when considering employee involvement in the decision making process. Silence also occurs when there are trust issues. If someone believes what they say will be used against them, they will remain silent. Comment made by UK charity Ã¢â¬ËPublic Concerns at WorkÃ¢â¬â¢, in a UK newspaper: Ã¢â¬Å"The knowledge that there is a culture of silence in the workplace both encourages and shields the corrupt and dishonest (stern, 2008).Ã¢â¬ In this instance the negligence of management was extreme. However silence can still facilitate negligence in management, no matter the severity. Therefore, silence in its adolescence is bad, if left untreated it could turn into something much worse. When participants in an organization discuss issues at meetings, certain points should be taken into account. Levasseur (1995) provides ten points, the relevant ones are: 2. Agree on a shared purpose. 4. Record ideas, issues and agreements. 6. Manage tasks and teamwork simultaneously. 7. Answer 4 key questions about every agenda topic. 8. Decide on next steps as a group. This list highlights the fact that communication is a Ã¢â¬Ëtwo way streetÃ¢â¬â¢. Silence occurs in Organisations when these recommendations are not met. 2.2 Staff survey: (full results can be found in the appendix) The staff survey highlighted serious problems, with MIÃ¢â¬â¢s factory workers. The majority of workers gave a negative response to nearly every question. The workers seem to be more aware of the issues then the managers. The survey provided an anonymous outlet for factory workers where there previously wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t one. The survey should therefore be regarded as an accurate representation of worker/manager views. However some questions contain results that suggest Ã¢â¬Ëattribution errorsÃ¢â¬â¢. Attribution errors effect perceptions of positive or negative situations, and whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s internalised or externalised (Philip, 1985), evidence will not be taken from these afflicted questions. Figure [ 1 ]~ 60% of workers believe they are insufficiently educated on their job role. Workers donÃ¢â¬â¢t receive enough instruction about their specific role in the company. This leads to enormous inefficiencies, as workers are left to pick up the pieces. Figure 2 ~60% of workers do not have confidence in management. The lanes of communication needed are not there. A workplace without trust is inefficient. Figure [ 3 ] ~80% of workers are prevented from voicing their concerns. Workers are scared that what they say will be viewed favourably. They are also worried about getting fired. They are already inherently disadvantaged, because their only form of vertical communication is Ã¢â¬Ëlogical persuasionÃ¢â¬â¢. Figure 4 A lot of managers donÃ¢â¬â¢t involve workers. Decisions are probably made without them knowing. The workers probable feel helpless. Figure 5 All managers consider themselves approachable. Question three was the most unanimous result from the entire survey. This suggests managers donÃ¢â¬â¢t openly discourage communication. They most discourage communication other ways. They are in positions of power, making them more accountable then individual workers. 2.3 Case Study: Mirror Image shows a general lack of communication between management and their respective subordinates, brought about by distrust and fear. Management is distrusted because the workers fear clear communication will ultimately leave them jobless. Fear keeps what little interpersonal communication they have focused on safe subjects, like the Ã¢â¬ËRugby world cupÃ¢â¬â¢. Fear is a powerful tool used by harsher power bases. Managers at MI resort to harsh power bases because they come with the job (legitimate and coercive bases). Softer more progressive bases require reform and effort. The need for softer bases is evident in the formation of several factory leaders. One mentioned was Ã¢â¬ËRickÃ¢â¬â¢ who became a Ã¢â¬Ëgo betweenÃ¢â¬â¢ for workers. Workers like Rick display reverent power that managers and the foreman lack. This is an obvious inefficiency. Effectively doubling the time spent communicating. The Ã¢â¬Ëspiral of silenceÃ¢â¬â¢ impacts employees, because their ideas are not considered my management. Previously efforts in communication where hampered by an uninterested CEO. Relying on memo boards is extremely impersonal and should only be used for functional information. This lack of effective communication set a low standard for workers and managers, this caused the distrust between them. Managers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t involve workers and donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask for their opinions, while workers used inefficient mediums of exchange. The loss in productivity isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy to quantify, however managers being disinterested in workers activities may further decrease productivity (Mayo, 1930). 3.0 Conclusion: MI has significant issues between factory workers and management. Brought about by lacklustre communication, the issues were mostly caused by distrust. When analysing the workers survey it was obvious that they sore serious problems with the way MI was run. NOT FINISHED 4.0 Recommendation: These recommendations will help managers and workers communicate more efficiently, remembering as CEO you should lead by example. Transparency should be deployed in every facet of the organisation, to tackle the large trust issues hampering communication. Start by reassuring staff that jobs will not be going under your leadership, making shore you donÃ¢â¬â¢t promise something you canÃ¢â¬â¢t keep. Try having reviewable performance evaluationÃ systems. If transparency is achieved certainty will result, certainty in time will bring a trusting workforce. Use communication classes to teach the basics, from subtle nonverbal communication to lifting the level of communication entirely (extensive list provided in index). Include shifting managerÃ¢â¬â¢s power bases from harsh to soft. Only bother teaching the managers as it will cost less, while achieving more. Managers should be encouraged to show an interest in the workers and the work they are doing. Managers should encourage Ã¢â¬Ëtwo wayÃ¢â¬â¢ communication, make them answer employee questions fully. If they are not receiving questions have them rhetorically answer some of their own. Enforce these measures by increasing the transparency down the chain of command. Ask for updates on progress regularly. Removing the memo board is a good idea, in favour of orders being communicated down the chain of command, to ensure Ã¢â¬Ëtwo wayÃ¢â¬â¢ communication. Only process information should be distributed through other mediums. Goals should be produced by both the workers and managers. This should reduce some of the Ã¢â¬Ëspiral of silenceÃ¢â¬â¢ effects. Finally the team leaders (foremen) have proven to be a bottle neck in communication. Seek to promote workers who display natural ability to communicate. For example Ã¢â¬ËRickÃ¢â¬â¢ the employee mentioned by you would be a fine candidate. These leaders will hopefully bridge the gap between workers and management. 5.0 List of references: 1. Allen, Christopher J,D.V.M., J.D. 2012, Ã¢â¬Å"4 Ways to Provide Transparency in the WorkplaceÃ¢â¬ , DVM, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 54-55. 2. Bach, P. 2006, Workplace trust hard to gain, but consistency, transparency key, Washington, United States, Washington.(ProQuestID- 463161676) 3. Daniel A. Wren, Arthur G. Bedeian, John D. Breeze, (2002) Ã¢â¬Å"The foundations of Henri FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s administrative theoryÃ¢â¬ , Management Decision, Vol. 40 Iss: 9, pp.906 Ã¢â¬â 918 state: It was not until the StorrÃ¢â¬â¢s translation that FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s (1949) 4. French, J. R. and B. Raven (1959). Ã¢â¬Å"The bases of social power.Ã¢â¬ Studies in social power 150: 167 5. Gupta, B. & Sharma, N.K. 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"Compliance with Bases of Power and SubordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Perception of Superiors: Moderating Effect of Quality of InteractionÃ¢â¬ , Singapore Management Review, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1-24. (ProQuestID-226850816) 6. Levasseur, R.E. 1995, Ã¢â¬Å"Breaking the silenceÃ¢â¬ , Successful Meetings, vol. 44, no. 13, pp. 61-61.(ProQuestID-206037363) 7. Mayo, Elton (1930). Hawthorne and the Western Electric Company. The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilisation. Routledge. 8. Newberry, R. & Conrad, D. 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"Identification of Outcome Based Business Communication SkillsÃ¢â¬ , Allied Academies International Conference.Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict.Proceedings, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 28-32.(ProQuestID- 807539416) 9. Noelle-Neumann, E.(1974) Ã¢â¬Å"The spiral of silenceÃ¢â¬ : A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24, 43-3 10. Philip E. Tetlock. Sept 1985, Ã¢â¬Å"Accountability: A Social Check on the Fundamental Attribution ErrorÃ¢â¬ , Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 227-236 11. Stern, S. Sept 9 2008, Pssst . . . get smart and wipe out whistleblowing, The Financial Times, United Kingdom 12. Walters, D. & Norton, D. 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership communication Ã¢â¬â the AstraZeneca wayÃ¢â¬ , Strategic Communication Management, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 16-19. (ProQuestID-203573719) | | 6.0 Appendix: 6.1 Question from Survey: Factory Worker Questions 1. I have a clear idea about my job role. 2. I am satisfied with the performance evaluation system. 3. Sometime IÃ¢â¬â¢m given tasks without the required resources (including time and knowledge) to complete them. (possible attribution error) 4. I have confidence in the intentions of the top management team 5. I feel comfortable voicing my concerns to senior managers. 6. I have a voice in the organizational decision making process. 7. I trust the people with which I work 8. I am treated fairly at work 9. I am satisfied with my work. 10. I feel committed to this organisation Management Questions 1. I try to seek employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ input when making decisions. 2. I tend to closely supervise my subordinates. 3. I consider myself an approachable manager(possible attribution error) 4. I tend to customize my communication with employees to fit specific situations 5. I consider my workplace as rather political 6. I am satisfied with my work. 7. I feel committed to this organisation 6.2 Results from Survey: | Workers n=100| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | q1| q2| q3| q4| q5| q6| q7| q8| q9| q10| Completely Disagree| 20| 15| 10| 35| 60| 72| 36| 23| 0| 5| Mostly Disagree| 40| 45| 15| 25| 20| 24| 25| 32| 19| 55| Neither| 20| 20| 10| 25| 10| 4| 30| 28| 52| 25| Mostly Agree| 10| 20| 40| 15| 10| 0| 9| 7| 23| 10| Completely Agree| 10| 0| 25| 0| 0| 0| 0| 10| 6| 5| | | | Managers n=20| | | | | | | | | q1| q2| q3| q4| q5| q6| q7| | Completely Disagree| 2| 0| 0| 3| 1| 0| 0| | Mostly Disagree| 7| 2| 0| 5| 2| 2| 3| | Neither| 10| 3| 0| 4| 3| 3| 3| | Mostly Agree| 1| 4| 0| 3| 5| 5| 5| | Completly Agree| 0| 11| 20| 5| 9| 10| 9| | 6.3Newberry & Conrad (2010) extensive list of valuable communication skills Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational Communication Skills 1. Initiating open discussion Ã¢â¬â the ability to create the act of discussion and dialogue exploring opposition by individuals who advocate their positions and convince others to adopt those positions through logic, argument, or debate 2. Resolving conflict Ã¢â¬â the ability to employ a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict through processes including negotiation, mediation, and diplomacy 3. Creating information networks Ã¢â¬â the ability to design and institute formal or informal systems for managing the flow of information and providing person-to-person relationships through which information flows 4. Teaching important skills Ã¢â¬â the ability to provide skill remediation to employees in areas such as job performance, technical competency, interpersonalÃ communication, and problem solving 5. Using information technology Ã¢â¬â the ability to employ equipment (usually computers) that enables managers and staff to access ongoing and relevant company information including reports, planning data, and employee and customer feedback 6. Providing performance feedback Ã¢â¬â the ability to assess employee performance and provide performance feedback as a review of the performance of employees, which helps to set targets for future performance targets 7. Negotiating Ã¢â¬â the ability to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. 8. Writing business correspondence Ã¢â¬â the ability to produce written communication used in business including letters, memos, bulletins, and reports 9. Making convincing presentations Ã¢â¬â the ability to provide informal or formal talks delivered to decision making groups to convey information or make a point Leadership Communication Skills 1. Arousing enthusiasm Ã¢â¬â the ability to inspire a whole-hearted devotion to an ideal cause, study or pursuit, or merely being visibly excited about what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s doing 2. Being a change catalyst Ã¢â¬â the ability to initiate change through provision of information to employees that will convince them of why a change is necessary and will compel them to embrace it 3. Creating group synergy Ã¢â¬â the ability to compel organizational members to interact and produce a joint effect that is greater than the sum of the members acting alone 4. Building team bonds Ã¢â¬â the ability to establish team cohesiveness, which is the extent to which members stick together and remain united in the pursuit of a common goal 5. Expressing encouragement Ã¢â¬â the ability to provide support and confidence raising or increasing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem and confidence to make choices and decisions 6. Providing motivation Ã¢â¬â the ability to move a person or group toward desired goals by increasing their willingness to exert effort and energy to achieve the goals 7. Being persuasive Ã¢â¬â the ability to guide people toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational, and logical means relying on appeals rather than coercion 8. Building optimism Ã¢â¬â the ability to create a disposition or tendency to look on the more favorable side of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome despite obstacles and setbacks Interpersonal Communication Skills 1. Active listening Ã¢â¬â the ability to employ an intrapersonal and interactive process to actively focus on, interpret, and respond verbally and nonverbally to messages 2. Building rapport Ã¢â¬â the ability to create a harmonious relationship, bond, or kinship based on mutual respect, friendship, camaraderie, or emotional ties making someone feel comfortable and accepted 3. Demonstrating emotion self control Ã¢â¬â the ability to display balanced moods through retaining, mastering, and dominating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions provoked by pleasant or unpleasant emotion 4. Building trust Ã¢â¬â the ability to construct the reciprocal faith in othersÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions and behavior through a shared belief that you can depend on each other to achieve a common purpose 5. Relating to people of diverse backgrounds Ã¢â¬â the ability to recognize and respect differences in people and communicate appropriately in verbal and nonverbal exchanges 6. Demonstrating respect Ã¢â¬â the abil ity to show esteem for or a sense of the worth or excellence of a person, a personal quality or ability, or something considered as a manifestation of a personal quality or ability 7. Building relationships Ã¢â¬â the ability to establish a relatively long-term association between two or more people based on liking, trust, and respect creating regular business interactions, interdependence, or some other type of social commitment (Newberry & Conrad 2010)Ã¢â¬
Friday, August 30, 2019
The Cyclist Poem
Ã¢â¬Å"The CyclistÃ¢â¬ poetry commentary Ã¢â¬Å"The CyclistÃ¢â¬ is a poem by Louis MacNeice which romanticizes the fleeting joys of childhood. These joys are emphasised through imagery of summer Ã¢â¬â be it activities, food, the beach, a bicycle ride, various techniques such as juxtaposition and enjambment are used to evoke fond memories from the reader. MacNeiceÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is set in the southwest of England, on a hill with a chalk horse carved into it. It is during the height of summer, when the grasshoppers are buzzing and the children are playing outside. The character is a boy or a group of boys, and they are riding bicycles down a hill near to the chalk horse.The structure of the poem is quite disjointed, with only five sentences throughout three stanzas. Enjambment is used extensively to further reinforce the idea of a out of breath child, as by not ending each line with a full stop the poet is enticing the reader to continue and hear what this breathless child has to say. The use of time in Ã¢â¬Å"The CyclistÃ¢â¬ is used to reinforce the notion that the pleasures of summer are temporary. In the first stanza, for example, on line 7, Ã¢â¬Å"but these five minutesÃ¢â¬ is a reference to both the comparatively short time of childhood and the rapid rush down the hill during summer. Also read: How to be Old Swenson AnalysisTime is again mentioned in line 24 (Ã¢â¬Å"For ten seconds moreÃ¢â¬ ) to remind the reader that time is ever-present, and that ageing is impossible to avoid for a child as adulthood draws every closer (emphasised in the decrease of time from five minutes to ten seconds). In general, the speaker in Ã¢â¬Å"The CyclistÃ¢â¬ appears to be speaking as a child; he overuses and Ã¢â¬ËaccidentallyÃ¢â¬â¢ mixes up words. For instance, on line 4 the speaker says Ã¢â¬Å"In the heat of the handlebars he grasps the summerÃ¢â¬ . This is plainly a childÃ¢â¬â¢s error, and it makes no sense as it is Ã¢â¬â it should be Ã¢â¬Ëheat of the summer he grasps the handlebarsÃ¢â¬â¢.Another example of this is during the last stanza, where the speaker is describing various ways to enjoy the summer, he states Ã¢â¬Å"chase it with butterfly nets or strike [Ã¢â¬ ¦ ] little red ball or gulp [Ã¢â¬ ¦ ] cream /Or drinkÃ¢â¬ (lines 18-20). This overuse of Ã¢â ¬Å"orÃ¢â¬ again shows the flustered excitement when a child is overloaded with activities; they canÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly even speak fast enough to experience them all over the course of one short summer. The experiences which are breathlessly listed are all typical summertime activities, such as catching butterflies, playing cricket, eating summer fruits with cream or enjoying a ool drink in the shade. All of these activities are typically not long-lasting: butterflies slip out of nets, breath cannot be held underwater for long, and food and drink generally do not last long with hungry children around. Therefore, MacNeice is reinforcing the idea that childhood and summertime are fleeting joys which can only be carelessly enjoyed for a so long, and they should be savoured. There is interesting juxtaposition and repetition in the last four lines: repetition of Ã¢â¬Å"calmlyÃ¢â¬ and juxtaposition between calm/stillness and movement.The last four lines also describe the feeling of p eace while you coast along on a bike with no need to pedal after having sped down a hill. Ã¢â¬Å"For ten seconds more can move as the horse in the chalkÃ¢â¬ means he can be still while still Ã¢â¬ËgallopingÃ¢â¬â¢ (as the horse carved into the hill is galloping, and yet cannot move). Ã¢â¬Å"Calmly regardless of tenses and final clausesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â again grammar is mentioned which refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"forgotten sentenceÃ¢â¬ of school. The final line, Ã¢â¬Å"Calmly unendingly moves. Ã¢â¬ , is a reference to the horse carved into the hillside.This idea is strengthened in the first line, with Ã¢â¬Å"unpassing horseÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"unpassingÃ¢â¬ gives the idea that while the horse is constantly moving, it never actually moves. The fact that the poem both begins and ends with reference to this horse shows that it is one of main ideas of the poem. And so the horse remains there, seemingly for all eternity, fixed in its graceful stride, calmly, unendingly moving. Further jux taposition can also be found in the opposites of Ã¢â¬Å"Left-right-leftÃ¢â¬ , which comes in as the poem approaches its end.It shows the child slowing down and needing to pedal to keep moving, as Ã¢â¬Å"Left-right-leftÃ¢â¬ is the motion needed to turn the pedals one full circle. Ã¢â¬Å"And reaching the valley the boy must pedal againÃ¢â¬ (line 22) shows that the joys of summer are brief, and they only come once the Ã¢â¬ËhillÃ¢â¬â¢ (seasons) has done a full cycle and the cyclist has returned himself to the crest of the hill. Water is a symbol which is heavily used in the second stanza and the beginning of the third stanza. It is used to show the innocence of childhood; the purity before the child becomes Ã¢â¬ËpollutedÃ¢â¬â¢ by reality and is forced to Ã¢â¬ËpedalÃ¢â¬â¢ back up the hill of life.The second stanza begins with imagery of a meadow which quickly transforms into an ocean: Ã¢â¬Å"The grass boils with grasshoppers, a pebble /Scutters from under the wheelÃ¢â ¬ . The wonderfully poetic language assists in the seamless transition from meadow to ocean: the rolling grass hills are likened the boiling waves (heated by the sun), and the pebbles are compared with crabs, scuttering away to escape the bikeÃ¢â¬â¢s wheel. The Ã¢â¬Å"boys riding their heat-waveÃ¢â¬ creates a picture of a surfer, Ã¢â¬Å"feet on a narrow plank and hair thrown backÃ¢â¬ .The narrow plank creates ambiguity, as the reader is not sure if the poet it referring to a surfboard or the pedals on a bike. The Ã¢â¬Å"spattered whiteÃ¢â¬ countryside spoken about on the previous line draws parallels between white caps on the ocean, the boys (whose skin colour would stand out against the green or blue) and the white chalk horses carved into the hills. The Ã¢â¬Å"heat-waveÃ¢â¬ is a play on words by MacNeice, as the real meaning is a period of exceptionally hot weather which usually occurs in summer. In this context though, it has a double meaning of figuratively Ã¢â¬Ë surfingÃ¢â¬â¢ on the Ã¢â¬ËwaveÃ¢â¬â¢ while Ã¢â¬ËridingÃ¢â¬â¢ the wave on a bicycle.This water imagery then flows over into the next stanza, pulling the reader forward in the current of the poem, as it depicts the cyclist with a Ã¢â¬Å"surf of dustÃ¢â¬ (line 17) beneath him, more like a wave than a cloud of dust. The continuation of the sentence into the next stanza is another way MacNeice draws the reader onwards. The animals referred to throughout the poem are all typical summer creatures: grasshoppers chirping on a hot summersÃ¢â¬â¢ day, dragonflies suspended in the haze, horses running free over the hills, butterflies floating back and forth, crabs scuttling along a beach.These symbols reinforce MacNeiceÃ¢â¬â¢s image of a perfect summertime. The poem as a whole Ã¢â¬â but especially the first stanza Ã¢â¬â likens life to a text or piece of writing, combined with the fleeting exhilaration of childhood: Ã¢â¬Å"Between the horizonÃ¢â¬â¢s bracketsÃ¢â¬ , with the Ã¢â¬Å"main sentenceÃ¢â¬ of adult life to be Ã¢â¬Å"picked up laterÃ¢â¬ . The use of grammatical terms such as Ã¢â¬Å"bracketsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"parenthesisÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tenses and final clausesÃ¢â¬ reminds the reader that school and education is always in the back of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, not wanting for the summer to end.Through the use of poetic techniques such as juxtaposition and enjambment, MacNeice has created parallels between the joys of childhood and the fun of whizzing down a hill on a bicycle. Water imagery, the majority of which is found in the second paragraph, is used to show that summer enjoyment is not only limited to the meadows of southwest England, but can be enjoyed by the beach or surfing in the ocean. In Ã¢â¬Å"The CyclistÃ¢â¬ Louis MacNeice seeks to make an initially light-hearted statement about the fun in being a child which slowly shifts into a more contemplative, melodramatic declaration of the inevitability of ageing and the passage of time.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
'Hegel argues that the history of civilizations is the history of Essay
'Hegel argues that the history of civilizations is the history of Reason and rationality permeating mankind' To what extent is h - Essay Example Using Horkheimer and Adorno, it will be argued that human nature cannot be completely subjected, and second, that the elimination of superstition has also brought about the subjugation of nature in general. Therefore, there is a progress of reason, but some important limitations too so it cannot be maintained to have completely permeated humankind. For Hegel, history is the succession of stages of consciousness, and these stages of consciousness culminate in a notion which might be said to be a universality of reason or a notion reflecting wide-scale enlightenment.[Hegel, 1952: 216]. To realize universal reason, is to understand history, and to have therefore, self-understanding. Hegel addresses the nature of history at the end of the Philosophy of Right. Concerning these stages, Hegel identifies Ã¢â¬ËfourÃ¢â¬â¢ main periods. These are the Ã¢â¬ËOriental realmÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëthe Greek RealmÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëthe Roman realmÃ¢â¬â¢, and finally the Ã¢â¬ËGermanic realmÃ¢â¬â¢ [ Hegel, 1995: 220-223]. Of the first realm, he states that they are both indicative of "naturalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ËpatriarchalÃ¢â¬â¢ communities. Further, he identifies these as forms of consciousness where pantheistic views of nature dominate all forms of explanations, and indeed, where history itself is poetry [Hegel, 1952: 222]. While the Greeks eliminate many of the limitations of the irrational that preceded them, they still had Ã¢â¬Å"slaveryÃ¢â¬ which he suggests that as being a Ã¢â¬Å"compromiseÃ¢â¬ of Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ . Slaves, for example, are like Oedipus before he discovered his own identity. In other words, if history is about memory or recollection, and it is about self consciousness or self awareness, then, in this regard we can understand how a society with slaves cannot be a society with universal reason. Slaves are denied the possibility of real self understanding, but by virtue of being enslaved. Reason is essential to freedom [Gallagher, 1997: 128]. The second last stage is the Roman realm which like the Greeks is a divided society. First, he argues that there is equality and private rights, however, the nature of the relations among individuals is both formal and abstract [Hegel, 1952: 221-2]. A division persists between the classes, however, the division in the Roman realm is between those who follow there intuition or senses (superstition), and those who use Ã¢â¬ËreasonÃ¢â¬â¢ and self-understanding as a guiding principle. [Hegel, 1952: 221]. In this sense, Rome had an educated elite, but an un-educated and Ã¢â¬Å"superstitiousÃ¢â¬ majority. In the Ã¢â¬ËGermanic realmÃ¢â¬â¢, reason is reconciled with irrationality. This occurs in a two-fold sense, according to Hegel. First, those who follow passion, belief, sensation or the Ã¢â¬Ëlaw of the heartÃ¢â¬â¢, become elevated toward the Ã¢â¬ËheadÃ¢â¬â¢, so to speak. Second, Ã¢â¬ËreasonÃ¢â¬â¢ which had been Ã¢â¬ËabstractedÃ¢â¬â¢ from the senses becomes embodied in this world. There exists a mutual recognition in each others rational capacities, and this mutual recognition entails that Ã¢â¬ËuniversalityÃ¢â¬â¢ is no longer abstract, but rather, manifest in a community of rational individuals [Pinkard, 2002: 160]. For Horkheimer and Adorno, the progress of reason is also viewed as a product of the Enlightenment, however, the progress is viewed as a means of subjugation rather than emancipation. While the progress of history promises the emancipation of people through enlightenment and reason,
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Branding for Mental Real Estate Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words
Branding for Mental Real Estate - Essay Example In the modern world, art and advertisements seem to have the same purpose, i.e. to motivate and move people towards some form of action (Lee, 2000). In this respect advertising may be a more difficult art form than painting or sculpture since it might be far easier for people to give off an emotion which costs them nothing rather than loosen their purse strings and spend money on something which they might even not need at all. Given the times we live in, even things like the GUI (Graphical User Interface) design of a computer or the layout and graphics used on a website could indeed by accepted as a valid form of art (Brierley, 2002). Fundamentally, both art and advertisements today are all about the money and the amount of sales they can generate for a company. Few industries have seen the drama, romance and emotion at the level of the computer industry. From the earliest government sponsored projects to produce computers based on vacuum tubes to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s multi-core systems, the saga of computer technology has seen major players ousted and minor players become leaders. While many companies have come and gone over the past 40 years, Apple Computer comes across as one of the companies which has stood the test of time and has managed to turn out convincing products that have given it an image of innovation and being a radical organization (Elliott, 1998). Apple is an American company and one of the front runners amongst computer hardware, software and allied equipment manufacturers. The company prides itself on creating innovative products for the consumer electronics and technology sectors.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The Tear of Nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words
The Tear of Nature - Essay Example J and C.D 211). This paper will examine the zoologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities and encounters, relating these experiences and activities with the current ecological issues. Understanding the ecology of different biosystems is the epitome of environmental protection. Motivation of the biologists When biologists Mark and Delia Owens got seized by the notion of resettling in the Kalahari Desert, their main motivation was to find an isolated site whose wildlife had no previous encounters with human beings, and thus would not be fearful of humans. They set out to examine the living conditions of renowned animals such as lions, brown hyenas and jackals. Their primary goal for resettling in the remote desert was to study wildlife in the Kalahari Desert and make calls for its conservation. For this, the duo settled in the Deception Valley, which is the remotest part of the desert. The biologists were knowledgeable of the effects of poaching on wildlife survival and sustenance, and sought to creat e awareness of these effects. This was primarily aimed at promoting a culture of awareness of the diversity of wildlife and promoting the protection of wildlife. Currently, especially following the drastic changes that have occurred on the environment, biologists and other environmental stakeholders have instituted a campaign aimed at saving the environment and ecosystems found in it. The main emphasize is on appreciating the input of all creatures in the biodiversity system called the Earth. All creatures, big or small play an integral role in environmental sustenance, which means the depletion of a single unit of the bio diverse environment has significant, detrimental effects on the overall environment. As zoologists, the Owens primary focus was on animals within the Kalahari Desert ecosystem. They were, nonetheless, agreeable on the essence of other forms of life within the ecosystem. These include trees and shrubs that fed the herbivores on which the large carnivores fed. Overc oming threats to their health and safety Water scarcity within the desert is a momentous problem, which proved quite taxing to the Owens. The duo had to ration themselves to meager seven gallons of water per week for all their needs that included cooking, drinking, bathing and cooling the vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s radiator. Such water scarcity posed substantial threats to their health. Moreover, the cleanliness of the water was also wanting as it was infested by bees and collected twigs and soil (Ramawat 25). In ancient days, the Kalahari was characterized by a series of rivers and other water catchment sources, but currently only dry channels show evidence of the rivers. According to Mark and Delia, the dry channels nowadays lay next to slightly lofty sand dunes. Deception Valley, where the Owens settled is located on one of the aforementioned river beds. Water scarcity is currently a formidable ecological problem, which plagues many areas of the globe. Global warming as a consequence of en vironmental degradation is the cause of the water scarcity problem in the world. As people degrade forests by cutting down trees to create land for settlement and agriculture, people, in fact, degrade the quality of their lives. Water is essential for life as it constitutes a large portion of the human body. Environmental degra
Monday, August 26, 2019
The History of Warfare in the Perspective of John Keegan Essay
The History of Warfare in the Perspective of John Keegan - Essay Example The samurai were roughly considered as Japanese counterparts of Western European knights during their time. The Japanese were a literate a people, and the literary culture of the samurai was highly developed (Keegan 42). The samurai also developed a strong code of ethics that revolved around loyalty, self-denial, and honor to his lord and clan, and also being in constant readiness to die in the face of duty or failure. These set in mind the samuraiÃ¢â¬â¢s striving for perfection in the art of war, especially in swordsmanship and the martial arts: It was fostered by Zen Buddhism, which stressed the Ã¢â¬Ëtwo supreme ideals Ã¢â¬â fidelity and an indifference to physical hardshipÃ¢â¬â¢. It was reinforced by the culture of the warrior class, Ã¢â¬Ëa culture that paid meticulous attention to the formal, the ceremonious, and elegantly expressed in life and artÃ¢â¬â¢; Japanese swordplay was as much an art as a skill, governed by rules of deportment and gesture which epitomized th e Japanese concern for style in every aspect of existence (Keegan 45). The introduction of firearms in Japanese warfare during the 16th century was initially accepted at first due to practical reasons in relation to the ever-changing landscape of war during that time. ... Also, guns were unquestionably a symbol of foreign intrusion and were associated, illogically but inescapably, with the spread of Christianity (Keegan 44). It was for this reason that during the Tokugawa Shogunate period, all firearms in Japan were banned, therefore reversing the military advantage it once enjoyed for the sake of maintaining the samurai status quo. The next question to ask is when societies and organizations are most likely to originate or adapt to new military technology. The answer simply lies in necessity. The harsh realities of war and battlefield set the precedence that societies and organizations must adapt or completely change the way they wage war. During the First World War, nations developed several new military technologies to gain battlefield dominance that would ensure victory in the war. The invention of the machine gun, the breech loading shell cartridge rifles and artillery served as the initial technology for such dominance, but this led for all comb atants to take up trench warfare with much horrific loss of life for the attacking side since all combatants were equipped with such technology on the onset of hostilities. The invention of the tank was the second solution, but the machines produced were too few in number, too slow and cumbersome to impose a decisive alteration to tactical conditions (Keegan 313). The tank was developed as a defense, and because of it, there was no need to send waves of soldiers that will be cut down by deadly volleys of bullets and artillery shells. The last inquiry deals about specific characteristics of societies, technologies, and organizations in relation to their readiness to adapt to military changes. A specific characteristic is conditioned on society possibly
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Curriculum Development Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Curriculum Development Paper - Essay Example To wash hands is the best strategy to prevent the spread of germs in the healthcare environment. The hospitals are full of germs (disease causing micro organisms) and nurses have some power of ensuring that their spread is prevented. In order to impact this knowledge to the nurses, a lesson plan will be designed to guide the process of refreshing the knowledge on why washing hands is extremely significant in the healthcare environment, Hand washing Liaison Group (1999) About 20 nurses washing their hands will spend only five minutes when this is done at fifteen seconds each and if this is done throughout the day, a lot of time will be spent but it would be worth it as germs will be reduced considerably and the spread will also be limited. The nurses will have to wash their hands in warm water by using the hospital soap dispenser and leally lather it up. The nurses will wash the front as well as the back of their hands and they will pretend that they are going to handle a very delicate situation like surgery. The soap should be massaged between the fingers ensuring that the nails are properly washed and this should take about fifteen seconds per individual. The nurses can be timed (Bergquist & Pogosian 2000). The scrubbing action is very important as it helps to break up germs and remove them altogether. After this, hands should be properly rinsed with clean water and dried with a clean piece of cloth preferably clean white towel or the fresh paper towels currently in use. Nurses should note that when cleaning hands in the washrooms used by many people, the paper towel is the one to be used to open the door knobs and handles as they are in most cases contaminated. Since nurses are professionals in the medical field, they are in a better position to explain how the germs spread disease and due to this; the hand washing habit should be habitual and needing less prompting (Hoffman & Wilson 1994). Nurses have a responsibility of their own health and that of the patients as well because they are the ones offering professional assistance in this case. Learning the Importance of Hand Washing In order to ensure that nurses are updated on the correct procedure of washing hands, they will have to discuss why hand washing is important citing possible consequences of not doing so. On the other hand a list of benefits of washing hands will be established. There are lots of micro-organisms that cause diseases yet many of these cannot be seen by a necked eye. Precaution is therefore very important since the hospital also present an environment that could host even more germs than a normal home or house (Rosenau et al 2009). Objectives Nurses will have to concrete reasons as to why they have to wash their hands Nurses will also be required to explain and comprehend that
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Admissions Process at the University of Reading based in Microsoft Coursework
Admissions Process at the University of Reading based in Microsoft Dynamics CRM approach - Coursework Example This means they have to bear extensive understanding of the different platforms a factor which reduces the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency. Besides the day to day operations, UOR has in the past dealt with a disintegrated admissions process that heightened the chances of duplication and which seemed to duplicate the roles of the interacting stakeholders. Besides, the need for continuous correspondence even in the presence of an admissions system presented a limitation as it increased the chances of errors and caused delays. Introduction of the Reading Integrated Student Information partly solved the existing challenges but it still did not congregate all the stakeholders in a single platform. Convergence is critical as it harmonizes knowledge and improves the efficiency of the system a factor which addresses error incidence and time wastage which were synonymous with the existent systems. To provide a solution to the established challenges,the institution is planning to utilize Microsoft Dynamics CRM approach which among other things integrates the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s systems, particularly the admissions system.Being a new system,UOR would want an assurance on the system especially in regard to its capability to address existent system inadequacies.Therefore, the role of this study is to offer a thorough review on the system with the main aim of defining whether the Microsoft Dynamics CRM approach will indeed suit the needs of the institution. ... terface that jointly help access records and carry out searches are; The solution folder, this appears as a button immediately the Outlook client is installed. The button is used to access additional Microsoft Dynamics CRM functionality. In the case of the UOR, the button will carry the name of the organization. Ribbon, this carries the same functionalities in the Outlook interface as well as the web client, the ribbon shows variant buttons and features depending on the context. For example, if the user is accessing accounts, the ribbon displays various actions that the user can take with the accounts (Stanton, 2012). This is the same if the user is accessing records, the ribbon will display variant action available for contact records. View tabs, this area is utilized to highlight data that the user wants to work with. View tabs can also be utilized to pin views that the user may want to access in the near future. Lists, this appears the same way as in the web client and it displays a list of records. This displays records based on selected tab. Quick find, this is another commonality between the Outlook interface and the web client, a user can enter a search to search for particular records (Microsoft Inc, 2011). The difference in the Outlook quick find and the web client is that in the former the only displayed searches are those currently displayed in the view. Quick find in the web client searches the entire database. Lastly the filter, the filter can be used to sift data or records that appear in the displayed view. Using activities Microsoft Dynamics CRM classifies activities in either of the following categories; tasks, faxes, phone calls, e-mails, letters, appointments, as well as special case service activities (Stanton, .p.260). Ech class of activities
Friday, August 23, 2019
Molecular Basis of Disease Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Molecular Basis of Disease - Lab Report Example People lacking the absorption ability of vitamin B12 remain with the disease for the rest of their lives. Parietal cells found in the gastric cells are responsible for production of hydrochloric acid which is important in digestion as it provides a favorable medium for enzyme reaction. The serum found from patients having this disease react with ? and ? sub units. The antibodies are used for diagnostic purposes. This experiment involves testing of serum of antibodies from various patients to determine if they react with the sodium pump which contains ? and ? sub units. This will help in diagnosing pernicious anemia. A mouse is used in this experiment since its stomach structure is similar to that of a man. A primary antibody and a secondary antibody are also used in this experiment as they react with the mouse antigens. Anti proton pump of a human being can also cross react with proteins of the mouse making the mouse a favorable specimen for the experiment. From the experiment we exp ect antibody response to help us diagnose pernicious anemia. Aims The aim of this experiment is to determine whether samples from patients contain antibodies and also to diagnose patients having the disease through Western blotting; Immuno histochemistry using the gastric proton pump. Materials and Methods The materials used includes; SDS polyacrylamide gel (80%, resolving gel 40% upper stacking gel), Gel running buffer (25 mM Tris, pH 5.3, 0.192M Glycerin, 0.1% SDS), Gel apparatus, power supply, mouse stomach protein,5? SDS sample buffer (0.315 Tris, pH 6.8, 25% glycerol 10% SDS, 5% 2-beta mercaptoethanol, 0.025% Bromophenol blue), Protein MW standards, heat block, Gel loading tips, transfer apparatus, transfer buffer (25mM Tris, 192mM glycine,20% methanol), nitrocellulose membrane, filter paper, 0.1% Ponceau in1% acetic acid, 0.1M NaoH, TBS Tris buffered saline, Blocking solution TBS containing 5% skim milk powder. Materials required to obtain a mouse stomach include; a slide cont aining section of mouse stomach, xylene, hemoglobin, acid alcohol, ScottÃ¢â¬â¢s tap water, eosin, DPX mounting media and cover slips. Procedure to obtain mouse stomach morphology The slide containing mouse stomach is incubated in xylene and ethanol for two minutes respectively. After this the slide is rinsed in tap water for 30 seconds. The slide is then incubated in the hemoglobin for 2 minutes. The slide is rinsed again in tap water for 30 seconds after which it is placed in 1% acid alcohol for 3 seconds after which it is rinsed again in tap water for 30 seconds. The slide is incubated in ScottÃ¢â¬â¢s tap water for 30 seconds after which it is swashed in water for 30 seconds. The slide is then placed in eosin for 4minutes and excess is blotted off by a paper towel. The slide is then placed in 80% ethanol and again 90% after which the slide is incubated in ethanol for 2 minutes then allowed to air dry. A drop of DPX mounting medium is placed on the section and then covered by a cover slip. An observation is made under the microscope and diagrams made as follows. Fig 1 showing a mouse stomach with Haematoxylin To prepare the stomach protein sample, 200Ã µl of protein is placed into a microfuge tube and 50Ã µl 5? SDS sample buffer is added. The marker and the protein sample tubes are spine for a few seconds to bring the liquid to the bottom of the tube. The MW markers and proteins are then loaded using a special gel loading tips. The apparatus is then connected to a power supply of 200V and run for 1 hour until
Auditing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6
Auditing - Essay Example It has been noticed that frauds related to theft of inventory have a direct impact on the income statement of the company. Loss due to theft is directly proportion to decrease in profit (Week, 4 2012). There are following ways Mr. Franklin can reduce the probability of risk through theft. Access Control is like security measures these measures are taken so we can prohibit any kind of unauthorized entry in some restricted area (Audit Risk Assessment, Page 31), by this risk of theft of any asset can be reduced to a minimal level if the access is restricted to a minimal level then there is less probability of any kind of fraud or misrepresentation e.g. If there is only one person who is managing all cash related affairs and he is the only authorized person who have access to cash so, in such a scenario, the probability of theft will be low. It is necessary to count the assets periodically and then compare it with our records (Audit Risk Assessment, Page 381). It is quite essential to safeguard our assets from theft. It can provide you detail if there is some sort of difference between counted assets and recorded assets then we need an explanation. For that reason, first of all we need to understand the concept of materiality and we have to understand which category of goods is valuable to us (Week, 5 2012). It is a concept in which we use more than one person to complete a task; it means that we have to include different personal to execute a single transaction (Audit Risk Assessment, Page 380) so work of one individual is being cross checked by another individual. In such setup, there is a possibility that the risk of theft will reduce. But we have to make sure that no one is performing any duty which is mismatched. It is quite a good way for an internal control. The other risk the hospitality industry was exposed to a risk of fiddles or
Thursday, August 22, 2019
An Ethical Issue Essay Example for Free
An Ethical Issue Essay Euthanasia is a hotly debated ethical issue these days, and there are certain arguments for and against its practice. Arguments against euthanasia are usually based on the sanctity of life, and such arguments are often compatible with religion, but arguments for euthanasia concern individual liberty, and a desire to prevent more suffering than is absolutely necessary. In this paper, I intend to address arguments for and against euthanasia, and explain why it is an ethical issue, and conclude that euthanasia, in some cases, should be permissible. Euthanasia is defined as the painless termination of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, but the ethical dilemma surrounding the topic has to do with whether or not it is alright to euthanize someone who is in a vegetative state, and can no longer think for him or herself, and whether or not assisted suicide is morally acceptable. The first of these scenarios would entail someone, such as a family member or physician, ending the life of someone who is in great pain following an accident, but cannot express their own wishes (whether or not they wish to remain on a feeding tube, or on life support) because of physical body damage, and this is known as passive euthanasia. The other issue, the one of physician assisted suicide, entails someone like a physician assisting someone who is in great pain, but not in need of life support, in committing suicide, maybe by administering a lethal dose of medication, to alleviate the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s pain, and this is known as active euthanasia. Both active and passive euthanasia are highly debated ethical issues, as they concern the value of life, and whether or not people are justified in prolonging a life of anguish, or terminating a life of misery. Recently, there have been many controversial cases of euthanasia, or its possibility in cases where it seems necessary to some, such as the cases of Doctor Kevorkian, and Terry Schiavo. The main ethical issues in the cases where Dr. Kevorkian euthanized (performed physician-assisted suicide on) some of his patients regards whether or not a patient should have the potential to decide his or her own fate, and then whether or not a physician should be held accountable for supporting, and aiding in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to end his or her life. This fundamentally boils down to the question of whether or not someone can choose to end their life when that person is in constant pain, but the issue would be complicated by the efforts needed in determining who is in enough pain to be permitted to actively end his or her life, which brings up the question of why everyone cannot choose to terminate their lives. And patients in hospitals do have the right to passively kill themselves, by starving, or refusing treatment, so in some cases, when a patient is prepared to take such measures to end his or her life, it would seem morally permissible for a physician to painlessly facilitate that patientÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide. In the case of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s euthanasia by the pulling of a feeding tube or the termination of life support, the ethical dilemma surrounds the family, or physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s authority, when it comes to forcing the person who has brain damage to forfeit medical attention. A patient who is not in a vegetative state can refuse treatment, as that is not actively killing him or herself, but the question in the case of passive euthanasia is whether or not anyone other than the patient who might or might not refuse treatment due to severe pain if he or she were not in a vegetative state would have the authority to pull the plug on that personÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf, if the patient had not made his or her desired wishes clear. Religion plays a huge roll in helping people to believe that euthanasia should not be morally permissible, as most religions include some aspect about the sanctity of life, and based on that, they discourage suicide or killing in any form. Christianity in particular regards suicide as a sin, and that makes it difficult for people who wish to die because they are in too much pain, but their religion preaches against suicide. It is even against the law to commit suicide, but lately there have been questions coming out about whether people who are intensely pained by there illness should be exempt from this law, and whether or not doctors would be allowed to aid these suffering patients by providing them with lethal pills, or putting them to sleep by giving them extra doses of their medication. This is active euthanasia, where a patient, or doctor, or the combination of the two, take action to terminate life, rather than let it painfully continue for a long time, as the patient takes medicine and food, or making it drag on for a short, immensely painful period in the case where a patient refuses medication and food. For the most part, any argument against euthanasia must somehow be based on a view that life is sacred, and should never be sacrificed, at any cost, even when there is great pain to be dealt with if the life is prolonged. Ã¢â¬Å"Religious people dont argue that we cant kill ourselves, or get others to do it,Ã¢â¬ a BBC article about religion and ethics reports. Ã¢â¬Å"They know that we can do it because God has given us free will. Their argument is that it would be wrong for us to do so. They believe that every human being is the creation of God, and that this imposes certain limits on us. Our lives are not only our lives for us to do with as we see fit. To kill oneself, or to get someone else to do it for us, is to deny God, and to deny Gods rights over our lives and his right to choose the length of our lives and the way our lives end. Ã¢â¬ This summarizes a religious viewpoint that holds that euthanasia is not morally permissible. But for people who are not religious, a more basic argument in favor of euthanasia seems to arise, and that is simply whether or not people should be allowed to forfeit their lives if they are completely unsatisfied with them, or are severely pained by them. So, that might concern a simple case where someone is slowly dying of a terrible disease, and his medication deters the pain to some degree, but he is still miserable. Should that person be allowed to actively (or request that a physician actively) end his life, because he would rather forfeit his life than live on in pain and suffering? That seems to be a highly controversial issue, and from this perspective, it seems that euthanasia should be supported, at least to some degree. This could easily be a pro-euthanasia argument, as the person in pain has the right to forego medication, and refuse food and other life-sustaining attributes, which would lead to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s death after a period of maximal pain, but the patent, without euthanasia, would not have the right to forfeit his life without enduring the pain from the scenario where he refuses treatment if active euthanasia is not permissible. Ã¢â¬Å"Some experts are gunning for a compromise. Zhu Tiezhi, a media commentator,Ã¢â¬ A China Daily article reports, Ã¢â¬Å"suggests the right-to-die prerequisites: the applicant must have a terminal illness that causes agonizing pain, and the diagnosis must be verified by at least two doctors; the applicant must be in a clear state of mind when he applies for it, and the application process should be repeated at least twice to make sure it is not a spur-of-the-moment thought. Ã¢â¬ This article was written after a patient who had throat cancer jumped out of a window to end his life after he was told that physicians were unable to assist him in doing so. So it seems that in certain cases, euthanasia is a more humane way for one to end his or her life than to manufacture a way him or herself. Our job is to save lives, and we dont have the right to mercy killing, said an official at the Changsha hospital,Ã¢â¬ an official at the hospital in the Hunan Province of China, where the man committed suicide, stated. But in certain cases, lives may only be prolonged, painfully, for a short time, so euthanasia would then represent a painless way of alleviating a suffering patientÃ¢â¬â¢s agony. Ã¢â¬Å"Chantal Sebire knows shes forcing people to make an agonizing decision, but agony is something she knows far too much about,Ã¢â¬ Bruce Crumley includes in his article, entitled Making a Case for Euthanasia. Ã¢â¬Å"The 52- year-old Dijon schoolteacher suffers from a rare disease that has left her disfigured by facial tumors, which will also damage her brain over time and eventually kill her. Her demand that French political leaders loosen laws against euthanasia has been rebuffed, so Sebire now awaits a judges decision on whether existing legislation allows doctors to assist her in ending her pain-racked life. Ã¢â¬ËI no longer accept this enduring pain, and this protruding eye that nothing can be done about,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Crumley writes. And unfortunately, the legal system of most countries do not recognize euthanasia as a permissible alternative to prolonged suffering, which causes many to live on in pain, wishing that they could terminate their lives instead of continuing on in agony. This seems like a reasonable right that everyone should be entitled to exercise if the time is right. People should not be forced to, because of the legal issues surrounding the issue, and anyone (such as a physician) involved, be forced to live on in agony when they could end it all by euthanasia. It seems that laws forbidding active euthanasia, or mercy killings, is based on the principle that all life is sacred, and that even extreme suffering should be fundamentally imposed on people if it could occur without their death. So death is legally regarded as impermissible when it is in any way caused by man. But what about the death penalty? There is a scenario where the government does not view life as the most sacred institution, so if exceptions are allowed, why not provide one that alleviates the constant suffering and agonies that plague people who have certain medical conditions, but are not allowed to self-terminate? Ã¢â¬Å"A French woman suffering from an incurable and disfiguring cancer was found dead on Wednesday, two days after a court rejected her request for medical assistance to help end her life, a source close to the government said,Ã¢â¬ an article from reuters. com reported of the woman who had petitioned to have a physician assist her in suicide. Ã¢â¬Å"Chantal Sebire, 52, whose face was swollen and distorted by a rare tumour in her sinuses, won heavy media coverage and the compassion of many French people in her bid to set a legal precedent for patients like her seeking to end their suffering. A court in the eastern city of Dijon ruled on Monday that Sebire could not have a doctor help her die because it would breach both the code of medical ethics and the law, under which assisted suicide is a crime. Ã¢â¬ But it seems that the code of medical ethics should make exceptions in certain cases of euthanasia. Forcing someone to die slowly in accordance with some debilitating disease is in no way more ethical or more humane than permitting that person to terminate his or her life painlessly. Ã¢â¬Å"After nine years, 130 deaths, and six trials, Ã¢â¬ËDr. DeathÃ¢â¬â¢ Jack Kevorkian finally faces jail time for killing a desperate man who came to him for Ã¢â¬ËhelpÃ¢â¬â¢ and found only death,Ã¢â¬ Liz Townsend writes in her article, Kevorkians Nine-Year Euthanasia Crusade Leads to Murder Conviction. Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Youks death by lethal injection, administered directly by Kevorkian and nationally televised on 60 Minutes, led to a second-degree murder conviction March 26, but Youk was only one of many people who died to advance Kevorkians euthanasia crusade. Ã¢â¬ËWe believe the verdict should have been premeditated murder, but were very elated by the second-degree verdict,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Diane Coleman of the disability-rights group Not Dead Yet, according to the Associated Press. Ã¢â¬ËWe want to see Jack Kevorkian imprisoned for life. Its clear he has no respect for people with disabilities. Ã¢â¬â¢ But is assisted suicide really a violation of the rights of someone who is disabled? In cases of physician-assisted suicide, the patient would not think so. A violation of the rights of the disabled would be ignoring a plea for assisted suicide, which would end pain and suffering. But perhaps the most basic argument for permissability of euthanasia, in at least extreme cases, should be in regards to everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal liberty. By that argument, people may say that everyone should have the right to do as they please when it concerns their own body. But an argument against personal liberty might state that similar arguments would allow drug use and other impermissible activities. So What is to be done? It seems that the best thing to do would be to, when physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s can gauge someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mental aptitude, allow them to actively euthanize themselves, or assist him or her in doing so, if the patient is mentally competent, and wishes to end his or her life. And in the case of a family pulling the plug on someone (passive euthanasia) it should be permissible at all times if the patient had previously expressed a desire to die rather than remain on life support. Works Cited Appleton, Michael et al. At Home with Terminal Illness: A Family Guide to Hospice in the Home. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995. Barnard, C Good Life, Good Death a Doctors Case for Euthanasia and Suicide. Hbk 146pp Prentice-Hall 1980. Bold and provocative work by the famous heart surgeon. Battin, Margaret P. The Death Debate: Ethical Issues in Suicide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. The Law Society the British Medical Association. Assessment of Mental Capacity Guidance for Doctors Lawyers. Pbk 152pp British Medical Association 1995. Randall, F, Downie, R. Palliative Care Ethics A Good Companion Pbk, 202pp Oxford University Press 1996.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Epidemiolgy of Chikungunya Fever in Srikakulam District
Epidemiolgy of Chikungunya Fever in Srikakulam District Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus is no stranger to the Indian sub-continent. Since its first isolation in Calcutta, in 1963, the last outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in India in 1971. Subsequently, there has been no active or passive surveillance carried out in the country and seemed that the virus has disappeared till the large outbreaks of fever occurred in several parts of Southern India. We report a prospective analysis of cases of chikungunya fever referred from various primary health centers of rural, tribal and semiurban areas of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. Aims of study: To analyse the burden of Chikungunya fever in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh Material and Methods: A prospective descriptive study was under taken between January-2013 to December-2014 by testing clinically suspected chikungunya fever patients attending tertiary care centre in the Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The sera collected from suspected patients were analyzed for CHIK specific IgM antibody by IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using NIVCHIK kit. The data was analyzed. Results:-During the study period the total number of samples screened with clinical suspicion of chikungunya fever was 127, out of which 23(18.11%) were positive for IgM antibodies. The number of seropositive cases referred from rural area was 3 in number and from tribal areas 20.The seasonal distribution of cases was variable. Conclusion: Chikungunya fever is self limiting disease. Efforts have to be made through community awareness and early institution of supportive therapy. Vector control measures should be in full swing. Key words: Chikungunya fever, IgM positivity, Srikakulam district EPIDEMIOLGY OF CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER IN SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT Introduction Chikungunya (that which bends up) is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (arbo virus). It features the sudden onset of fever usually lasting two to seven days, and joint pains typically lasting weeks or months but sometimes years. The mortality rate is a little less than 1 in 1000, with the elderly most likely to die. The arbo virus is passed to humans by two species of mosquito of the genus Aedes: A.albopictus and A.aegypti. Animal reservoirs of the virus include monkeys, birds, cattle, and rodents. This is in contrast to dengue, for which only primates are hosts.  The best means of prevention is overall mosquito control and the avoidance of bites by mosquitoes in countries where the disease is common.  No specific treatment is known, but medications can be used to reduce symptoms. Rest and fluids may also be useful. Material and Methods: A prospective descriptive study was under taken between January-2013 to December-2014 by testing clinically suspected primary Chikungunya patients attending tertiary care centre in the Srikakulam District, Andhra.Pradesh.This centre receives samples from semiurban, rural and tribal areas from Srikakulam district. Blood samples were collected from patients with clinically suspected Chikungunya fever attending the Pediatric and Medicine clinics. The patents were diagnosed as having Chikungunya fever based on standard criteria; presentation with febrile illness of 2 to 7 days duration with skin rash and features like joint pains typically lasting weeks or months but sometimes years. Mixed infection with dengue and chikungunya fever and secondary infection were excluded from the study. The exact date of sampling was not available for most of the patents .Approximately 3 ml of blood was collected, serum was separated. The sera collected from suspected patients were analyzed for CHIK specific IgM antibody by IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using NIVCHIK kit. The data was analyzed. Results During the study period (2013 and 2014), the total number of samples screened was 127 of which 23 (18.11%) were positive for IgM antibodies (Table 12). There was increase in the percentage positivity in the year 2014(28.78%) when compared to 2013(6.55%) with (P value of .005). Of the 23 reactive cases, 1(4.34%) was positive in a child of four years and 22 (95.65%) were adults. The IgM positivity was 12 (52.17%) in males and 11 (47.82%) in females. The distribution of seropositive cases in adults was uniform in the age group ranging from 29 years to 62 years. (Table 34). The observed chikungunya IgM seropositivity month wise is illustrated for the year 2013 and 2014.The percentage of IgM positivity recorded was found to be variable, high during the months of September in 2013 and May in 2014. (Table 12).The number of seropositive cases referred from tribal area was more 18(78.26%). Discussion The word chikungunya is thought to derive from a description in the Makonde language, meaning that which bends up, of the contorted posture of people affected with the severe joint pain and arthritic symptoms associated with this disease. The disease was first described by Marion Robinson and W.H.R. Lumsden in 1955, following an outbreak in 1952 on the Makonde Plateau, along the border between Mozambique and Tanganyika (the mainland part of modern day Tanzania).According to the initial 1955 report about the epidemiology of the disease, the term chikungunya is derived from the Makonde root verb kungunyala, meaning to dry up or become contorted. The first recorded outbreak of this disease may have been in 1779. This is in agreement with the molecular genetics evidence that suggests it evolved around the year 1700.  In India first outbreak of Chikungunya was documented in Kolkata during 1963 and after that 4 to 5 outbreaks had occurred.  The last outbreak was reported in 1971 and after that no such outbreak occurred. It was assumed that virus had vanished from this region. Surprisingly since December 2005, more than 1,80,000 cases of Chikungunya was detected in India which clearly indicates re-emergence of Chikungunya in India. Since then Chikungunya become a major public health problem in India. An estimate of prevalence of infection due to Chikungunya from several surveys conducted during an outbreak gives us an idea of burden of problem in a specific region which seems crucial for initiating any intervention strategy. It is evident from prior survey that the main reason for this outbreak is lack of herd immunity, in-appropriate vector control strategy, emergence of rapid mutation of the virus.[7.9] Another issue with such outbreak is non-availability of proper laboratory diagnosis .[6,7] The reasons for outbreak for Chikungunya virus is unclear and yet to be explored Andhra Pradesh (AP) was the first state to report this disease in December 2005, and one of the worst affected (over 80,000 suspected cases). Several districts of Karnataka state such as Gulbarga, Tumkur, Bidar, Raichur, Bellary, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Kolar and Bijapur districts have also recorded large number of chikungunya virus related fever cases. Over, 2000 cases of chikungunya fever have also been reported from Malegaon town in Nasik district, Maharashtra state, India between February-March 2006. During the same period, 4904 cases of fever associated with myalgia and headache have been reported from Orissa state as well. According to the National Institute of Virology, Pune, out of 362 samples collected from different places in AP such as Kadapa, Secunderabad, Chittoor, Anantapur, Nalgonda and Prakasam, Kurnool and Guntur districts, 139 were found positive for chikungunya. Laboratory diagnosis of Chikungunya poses a great threat as most commonly practiced test like ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies is not standardized and interpretation of test results should be done with caution. Diagnosis is usually done based on triad of clinical symptoms like sudden onset of fever, skin rash and arthalgia.  As Chikungunya is self-limiting disease and treatment is mainly supportive. The best strategy for control of such outbreak is raising awareness of the community through mass education by public health officials. Vector control measures like spraying insecticides for example temephos, fenthion, malathion and DDT, clearing stored water and personal protective measures is also a key element in control of such outbreak.Research has shown that most important reservoir of vector of Chikungunya is in stored water in plastic or metal container and also available at construction sites. During this present survey community received education regarding safe water storage practices and personal hygiene which seems important issues in control of such outbreak.  In the present study 127 cases presented with clinical features of chikungunya fever out which IgM positive cases were 23(18.11%).The ratio of IgM positive dengue fever to chikungunya fever was 2.2:1 in 2013 and 1:3.3 in 2014.Maximum number of cases presented beyond 28 years of age with only one case in a four year old boy with male preponderance. Cases recorded were more from tribal area (78.26%). Conclusion: Seasonal transmission of chikungunya fever is highly variable and more cases are recorded from the tribal area in the present study. Intensive efforts have to be made through community awareness and vector control measures should be in full swing throughout the year. Education regarding safe water storage practices is very much essential. References Powers AM, Logue CH (September 2007). Changing patterns of chikungunya virus: re-emergence of azoonotic arbovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 88 (Pt 9): 2363Ã¢â¬â77 Mavalankar D, Shastri P, Bandyopadhyay T, Parmar J, Ramani KV (2008). Increased Mortality Rate Associated with Chikungunya Epidemic, Ahmedabad, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14 (3): 412Ã¢â¬â5. Lahariya C, Pradhan SK (December 2006). Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: A review (PDF). J Vector Borne Dis 43 (4): 151Ã¢â¬â60 Caglioti C, Lalle E, Castilletti C, Carletti F, Capobianchi MR, Bordi L (Jul 2013). Chikungunya virus infection: an overview.. The new microbiologica 36 (3): 211Ã¢â¬â27 Cherian SS, Walimbe AM, Jadhav SM, Gandhe SS, Hundekar SL, Mishra AC, Arankalle VA (January 2009). Evolutionary rates and timescale comparison of Chikungunya viruses inferred from the whole genome/E1 gene with special reference to the 2005-07 outbreak in the Indian subcontinent. Infect. Genet. Evol. 9 (1): 16Ã¢â¬â23. Inamadar AC, Palit A, Sampagavi VV, Raghunath S, Deshmukh NS. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: observations made during a recent outbreak in south India. Int J Dermatol 2008;47:154-9. Ravi V. Re-emergence of chikungunya virus in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2006; 24:83-4. Chhabra M, Mittal V, Bhattacharya D, Rana U, Lal S. Chikungunya fever: a re-emerging viral infection. Indian J Med Microbiol 2008;26:5-12 Kalantri SP, Joshi R, Riley LW. Chikungunya epidemic: an Indian perspective. Natl Med J India 2006;19:315-22 Chikungunya and Dengue in the south west Indian Ocean. Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR).2006. Mohan A, Kiran DH, Manohar IC, Kumar DP. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of Chikungunya fever: lessons learned from the re-emerging epidemic. Indian J Dermatol 2010;55:54-63. Tikar SN, Mendki MJ, Chandel K, Parashar BD, Prakash S. Susceptibility of immature stages of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti; vector of dengue and chikungunya to insecticides from India. Parasitol Res 2008;102:907-13. TABLES TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF CASES MONTH WISE IN THE YEAR-2013 TABLE-2: DISTRIBUTION OF CASES MONTH WISE IN THE YEAR-2014 TABLE 3: SEX WISE DISTRIBUTION OF IgM POSITIVE CASES TABLE 4: AGE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF IgM POSITIVE CASES TABLE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF IgM POSITIVE CASES AS PER HABITAT
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Marie Curie Essay | An introduction to her accomplishments
Marie Curie Essay | An introduction to her accomplishments Marie Salomea Sklodowska-Curie was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Poland (Borzendowski 2009, 1890). Of all the notable scientists in history, she is perhaps the strongest representation of a woman succeeding against all odds to change the field of physics forever. Her discoveries led her from a childhood of obscurity to being one of the most well-known scientists of all time. Childhood Curies father taught Mathematics and Physics as a secondary teacher, and shared his passions and knowledge with his children (Curie 1937, 59). These were unusual subjects for girls to study at the time and Curie went on to achieve degrees in both because of her fathers influence. Unfortunately, Curies family became lost everything when the principal of the school her father worked at, turned him in for being loyal to Poland, which was illegal under the Russian rule (Borzendowski 2009, 1894). Marie spent the rest of her youth struggling to fund her education. Schooling Marie Curie was an extremely intelligent woman who devoted her life to the pursuit of knowledge. She learned to read by the time she was four, without even trying, it seemed and soon she could read better than her older sister (Borzendowski 2009, 1892). At this young age she dreamed of becoming a scientist, even though such a dream would be difficult in her male dominated society. She received a general education in local schools and scientific training from her father (Curie 1937, 59). In 1891, Curie was finally able to continue her studies in the Sorbonne University, in Paris, where she studied and earned the equivalent of a masters degree in physics and mathematical sciences. Curie continued to further her education throughout her life. One of her greatest accomplishments occurred after her husbands death when she succeeded him as Head of the Physics Laboratory at the Sorbonne. In another moment of success she took her husbands place as Professor of General Physics in 1906, the fi rst woman to ever be given this position. Personal life Marie Curie had one great love in her life Pierre Curie. They met at university and quickly discovered a shared interest in magnetism (Ogilvie 2004, 30). They fell in love and were soon married but their relationship went further than just that of a husband and wife. They became partners in science and discovery and many of Curies greatest achievements were developed with her husband. The couple had two daughters, IrÃ ¨ne Joliot-Curie and ÃËve Curie, who went on to have very successful careers themselves (Ogilvie 2004, 41). Sadly, this happy family could not continue as disaster struck in 1906 when Pierre Curie was run over by a horse-drawn carriage and died (Ogilvie 2004, 76). After the loss of her husband, Curie was devastated and turned to his friend Paul Langevin to help her with her grief. This friendship quickly developed into a relationship for which Curie was publicly despised. She was a widow, but he was married and the father of four children (Quinn 1995, 14). The French press used this information to vilify her and to bring up peoples negative attitudes towards godless intellectuals and emancipated women (Quinn 1995, 14). Contribution to Science Marie Curie made one of the greatest discoveries of her time when she theorized that radioactivity was an atomic rather than a chemical property (Ogilvie 2004, ix). She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, winning numerous awards and becoming the first woman Nobel laureate in 1903 with her shared award in physics, alongside her husband Pierre Curie and colleague Henry Becquerel (Goldsmith 2005, 111). Marie Curie went on to win another Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this time as the sole recipient. She also discovered the elements polonium and radium (Ogilvie 2004, 57). Contribution to Society Marie Curie was continuously struggling to be seen and recognized for her great achievements. At the time it was an extremely unusual for a woman to take part in such a male dominated field. On May 13th, 1906 that changed. [T]he council of the Faculty of Science unanimously decided to maintain the chair created for Pierre Curie, and to confide it to Marie (Curie 1937, 253). This was the first time a woman had been given a visible role in French higher education. The fact that this vote was unanimous shows that Marie Curie was recognized as a scientist with enough talent to merit the possible backlash from a more conservative community. Curie was also altruistic. She donated her award money and pushed for the use of mobile radiography units during WWI to treat wounded soldiers. She wanted radioactivity to be used to treat cancer and devoted her life to finding benefits to these new properties that she had discovered (Curie 1937, x). Despite all of this, Curie still struggled with being accepted in the scientific community. For instance, it is interesting to notice that her early awards were almost always awarded to both her and her husband. In fact, Marie Curie had not been nominated for the 1903 Nobel Prize despite the fact that she had worked on the discovery (Ogilvie 2004, 66). It was not until her husband said I very much with to be considered together with Madame Curie that she was thought of and her nomination from the year before was used (Ogilvie 2004, 66). Marie Curie is easily one of the most prominent female scientists of all time. Her notoriety has been earned through her numerous awards, honorary degrees, and memberships to various learned societies. Most notably she was the first woman Nobel laureate in 1903 in physics and she then went on to win another Nobel Prize in Chemistry. It is important to note that she was awarded Nobel Prizes in two different categories, which is rare in itself, the fact that she was a woman doing this early in the twentieth century makes it all the more remarkable. Curie was also awarded the Davy medal, with her husband, in 1903. This award is one of [the Royal Society of Londons] highest awards (Curie 1937, 208). In 1904, she was awarded the Matteucci Medal by the Italian Society of Sciences, again with her husband and in 1909 she was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal by the Franklin Institute. Marie Curie was also awarded countless honorary degrees and memberships across the world for her achievement s. For instance, she received many honorary degrees and awards from countless schools and organizations. (Curie 1937, 406). Death Without the knowledge of radiation we have now, Curie took no precautions to avoid poisoning. To make matters worse, when she first began her research she had very little funding. Even if she had wanted to take safety precautions, she would not have been able. She did not even have a laboratory to perform her experiments, instead having to content herself with a shed for their experiments (Curie 1937, 186). Due to this, her notes, and even her cookbooks from the 1890s, are too radioactive to be handled (Bryson 2003, 140). Curie died July 4, 1934 from aplastic anemia because of this exposure to radiation (Ogilvie 2004, xiv). Sadly her passion for science and discovery had resulted in her death. Sixty years later, in 1995, the remains of the couple were transferred to the PanthÃ ©on in Paris, out of respect of their achievements. Currie was the first woman to ever receive this honor which cemented her position not just as a scientist, but as a symbol of possibility for women in the fu ture (Borzendowski 2009, 1888).
Monday, August 19, 2019
Insanity and Madness in A Rose For Emily and Yellow Wallpaper
Insanity in A Rose For Emily And The Yellow Wallpaper Ã The women in Faulkner's and Gilman's stories are victims of male over-protectiveness.Ã The men that rule their lives trap Emily in "A Rose For Emily" and the narrator of "The Yellow Wallpaper". Each character must retreat into their own world as an escape from reality. Emily is destroyed by her father's over-protectiveness. He prevents her from courting anyone as "none of the young men were quite good enough for Miss Emily and such" (82). When her father dies, Emily refuses to acknowledge his death; "[W]ith nothing left, she . . . [had] to cling to that which had robbed her" (83). When she finally begins a relationship after his death, she unfortunately falls for Homer Baron who "liked men" and was "not a marrying man" (84)... ...the trap that society has placed them in. Works Cited Faulkner, William. "A Rose For Emily." The Norton Introduction To Literature. Eds. Jerome Beaty and J. Paul Hunter. 7th Ed. New York, Norton, 1998. 1: 502-509. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper." The Norton Introduction To Literature. Eds. Jerome Beaty and J. Paul Hunter. 7th Ed. New York, Norton, 1998. 2: 630-642.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Windows 95 The O/s Of The Future :: essays research papers
Windows 95 the O/S of the Future The way of the computing world is changing at a neck breaking pace. People are looking for computers to be easy to use, and to make life easier for them. The computer manufactures and software developers have started to tailor computers and programs to fit the needs of the new Ã¢â¬Å"computer ageÃ¢â¬ . Graphical Interface Software (GUI) began to make computing easier and people who never dreamed of owning computers began to buy them. Macintosh was one of the first GUI computers to hit the market, but it was not IBM compatible, so it did not take over the mainstream of the computer industry. Since most computers where being make to fit the IBM compatible standards, Microsoft saw the need to replace DOS (Disk Operating System) with something easier to use. That is when they developed Windows, which covered the difficult to use DOS with a new face that made computing easier. The first Windows was a start in the right direction. In an effort to make computing meet the needs of the public, Microsoft developed Windows 95. Windows 95 has the appearance of being a completely user friendly operating system and it pretty much is as far as the average user is concerned. The compatibility with most hardware makes it easy for someone to upgrade their computer. The desktop is designed so the user has point and click access to all their open and closed programs. Utilizing the 32 bit programing it was written with, users are able to work with more than one program at a time and move information between programs. This gives the user the freedom they need to begin to explore the world of computing without having to learn all the Ã¢â¬Å" computer stuffÃ¢â¬ . Today everyone wants the fastest computer with the best monitor and fastest modem this was an interrupt address nightmare until Windows 95 was developed. People didn't know what jumpers needed to go where to make their hardware work. Or why their CDROM wouldn't work since they changed their sound board. Most hardware periphials have all the configurations built into a chip that communicates with Windows 95 to find out where it needs to put itself in the address map. This allows users to have fancy big screen monitors and connect to the Internet with high speed modems. They can also put in faster video cards that use all the nice Windows 95 features, thus making their computing less complicated Windows 95 is set up with novice users in mind. As with Windows 3.x, it has boxes that open up with the program inside called windows.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
An Inquiry to the Nature and Causes of the Influence of Adam Smith
Many people, when asked what pops into their mind with the word economics, they mostly say Ã¢â¬Å"capitalismÃ¢â¬ . Indeed the field deals a lot with capitalism. In fact, the three great names mentioned in Heilbroner and Thurow (1982, 17)Ã¢â¬âAdam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard KeynesÃ¢â¬âhave capitalism as the base of their different ideologies; and it is in how they view capitalism that within economics, several school of thought sprouted, enabling the further development of the field. The influence that Smith, Marx, and Keynes are incalculable: each inducing their own set of followers that continue polishing up their works long after they are gone, each idea continuing on as legacies, influencing political decisions all throughout the world. But for now, let us content ourselves with examining the influence of Adam Smith, the father of economics himself. In the opening statement of Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s celebrated work, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith, Skinner, 1986), he wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortunes of others, and render their happiness necessary to him, though he derives nothing from it, except the pleasure of seeing itÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 1986). Back in SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s day, this statement, along with the ideas contained in the Wealth of Nations, raised many eyebrows. The book, a first-of-its-kind defense for the free-market and a direct attack to mercantilism, argues that the selfish motives of individuals does not necessarily lead to detriments; in fact it could actually benefit the society. It is based from this belief that he further postulated that the free market, though looking like unrestrained and chaotic, will be eventually guided to the right direction by the Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible HandÃ¢â¬ , which in turn is guided by individual human motives that are most commonly selfishness and greed. It being termed as a free-market, Smith abhorred any kind of intervention coming from the government, believing that for the market to function efficiently, it should be left to work on its ownÃ¢â¬âthus, the idea of laissez-faire (www.econlib.org). Smith also was a firm believer that it is labor, and not land that is essential in increasing production and thus highlights the importance (but also warns against the peril) of division of labor. Just how influential SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas are can be readily seen in the field of Economics through the years and especially in this day and age: free markets have been made the ultimate goal of many a government of today; specialization has never been more stressed as a major strategy in production; capitalism is fast becoming the only model for economies today; and mercantilism have long disappeared in favor of SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s proposed free trade (although the degree of freedom in trade in some countries is a matter worth questioning). Selfishness and greed, although still contested by some groups, are still viewed in a much more positive light, and is justified in the field of economics so long as they serve the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s over-all benefit. Several followers have also polished on the economistÃ¢â¬â¢s basic ideas, extending them to meet the different quirks that come up through time. Smith has been a household name for any person with at least average knowledge on economics; in fact he is ranked 30th in Michael HartÃ¢â¬â¢s list of the most influential persons in history (1992). Also his portrait appears on the twenty pound note in UK. (Talk about influence that you cannot buy!) Greed that fosters growth and division that promotes efficiency. Once taken aside but now are lived and breathed and experienced worldwide. And as long as there are supporters who hang on to the basic tenets of the famous Adam Smith, the great economistÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy shall forever live on and endure. References Hart, M. (1992). The 100: A ranking of the most influential persons in history. Carol Publishing Group. Henderson, D. (2002). Biography of Adam Smith. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from Heilbroner, RL., Thurow, LC. (1982). Ã¢â¬Å"Three Great EconomistsÃ¢â¬ . Economics explained. Prentice-Hall. p.17. Smith, A., Skinner, A (Ed). (1986). An inquiry to the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. Penguin Classics.
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