Sunday, March 31, 2019
A Personal Ethics Reflection
A person-to-person Ethics ReflectionIt appears that my good framework may be slightly eclectic. N wholenesstheless, having happened to read the articles on Deontology and Utilitarianism (Kay, 1997 Deontological Ethics, 2008), I defecate come to the conclusion that my ethical framework largely revolves around the duty aspect of Deontology. Up to this point, I was unable to put a name to my ethical be equivocationfs/value system. I k sassy for sure though that my values were strongly based on my experiences as a delivererian. I strongly believe that rules are meant to be kept- non unkept as is the commonly heard expression. For me, life consists of a set of rules and duties-typical of a Deontologist. . I believe strongly that ones duty is strongly stipulated by Christ for example, the Great Commission, and the living a righteous life that is pleasing to matinee idol. here is an example recently I was to complete roughly readings for one of my courses plainly I was unable to do all the readings as I had antecedently made plans to attend a function at church. When I accompanied the score, I considered the possibility of being questioned directly about one of the articles that I had not read. Knowing that lying was not an option, I would have (as is my good duty) had to tell my proofreader that I had been unable to complete that particular reading. Had my moral principles revolved largely around Utilitarianism and Consequentialism, I would have told a lie because it would have prevented me from being suspended from the seminar which would have affected my attendance luck Thus at the end of the day, my ethical principles are incorporated with the unit idea of the Trinity residing in me.Now one may point that it would be different if I had a family member who was a homosexual or committed homosexual acts. I concur, it would be different. In fact, I would be more than than emotionally and spiritually invested which would be the precursor to more intens e prayer and fasting for that loved one. My Bible points me to the availing power of the good and fervent prayer of the righteous (James 5 verse 16). Therefore, based on the fact that I would hate to see my loved one move to hell, I would be on my knees praying for that persons deliverance. As I noted before, thither is a mixture of duties and consequence. I have my Christian duties that if not set up have great consequences for my soul. Additionally, I have as a new man in Christ an understanding of Gods specialized commands, so it does not matter who the person is that is, there is no agent-relativity.Within my ethical framework, I think my primary ethical principle revolves around the concept of Doing unto others as you would have them do unto you. Within this principle, some of the rules that I subscribe to link up to a passage of Biblical scripture that require Christians to avoid perspicaciousness and condemning others whilst ensuring that they are merciful and forgivin g (St. Luke 6 verse 36-37, major power James Version). The idea of avoiding judgement and condemnation does not imply that one is to accept or encourage an act that is not of God. The Bible gives specific guidelines as to what activities are condoned and prohibited. Thus, it is my duty to uphold the Christian laws and bring the pronounce to a non-Christian (St. Matthew 28 verse 18-20). Therefore, the principle regarding judgement and condemnation does not conflict with the stance I took with homosexuality (Romans 1 verse 24-32 2 Corinthians 6 verse 8 2 Thessalonians 3 verse 6).I forget give a further example of the principle regarding judgement and condemnation. I have recently found myself in a plight whilst interacting with persons who are not Christians. The most recent example was whilst interacting with a referee in class about professor Stephen mongers most recent scheme on the creation of the universe. My lecturer became instantaneously excited once Professor Hawkings name was mentioned. In fact, he proceeded to declare how awesome Professor Hawking was in his ability to explain the creation of the universe without acknowledging the presence of a supernatural force. Of course I thought this was absolute blasphemy and pitied my lecturer for what appeared to be atheism and his sure eternal damnation. It was not until after the class that I was sent back to my principle and rules about judging others. I was reminded that it is not my duty to decide on my lecturers fate though I am required to be a witness.In my estimation, ethics is a convoluted concept that requires much emotional, spiritual and cognitive investment. I in addition believe that the formation of my ethical principles has gone through and will go through several revolutions. The revolutions I forsee involve a strengthening of my throw beliefs. Of course, it is expected that future exposure will likely hone the steering in which I presently express my beliefs and so I will possibly become more tactful whilst voicing my principles. My ethical principles have been formed due to life experiences. When I was much younger, my principles were probably more a function of fearing the belt (consequences) versus what was my inherent DUTY. With age, emotional, cognitive and spiritual maturity, I have progressed from a more concretized way of accepting principles. The Bible speaks to allowing God to reveal Himself to us (1 Corinthians 2 verse 9-14 Life application choose Bible, 1991) and in questioning certain things ranging from the presence and development of God to the vastness of Gods grace the Lord has proven Himself to me as a being who is fitting of my praise. Thus, I believe the fundamental framework, principles and rules that I subscribe to will abide with me until death.I also recognize that my beliefs and values transcend all areas of my life. Thus, whereas some persons subscribe to the law of the land as the highest form of power the laws of my actor su persede all others. Therefore, within my professional and personal life, the Trinity reigns imperious and will continue to influence the way in which I find out my ethics. Second Timothy 4 verse 16-17 notes ALL scripture is God-breathed and is expedient for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work (Life Application Study Bible, 1991).
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Unstructured Free Time for School Age Children
Unstructured Free Time for enlighten maturate ChildrenHow Important is Unstructured Free Time for School Age Children?It has been said that children do their best learning when they do not count they atomic number 18 doing so. We most lots see this trend with kindergarteners, of whom find themselves performing games to learn to count, and singing songs to learn their ABCs. While the classroom has been an efficient perspective for the learning of academics, the anticgrounds dumbfound been spheres of critical social skill breeding. These periods of unstructured part with time, in any case known as intermission, are essential for the childs betterment. The skills they learn during these periods of unvaried personalized die hard and imagination provide benefits that extend far beyond sharing and friendship making.There isnt one single reason as to why recess has been eliminated from many naturalises by their local coach boards in that location are a combination of facto rs of which have catalysed this motion. The most influential cosmos a concern for safety and adequate supervision during the childrens recess periods. nigh parents and administrators have felt that allowting kids roam cede for even 20 minutes during the school day is a safety hazard for the child. They veneration that the child could get lost, or injure themselves from the unstructured and guiding easyhanded environment. This is the reason why many schools have banned dangerous games and activities, which still constricts what the child cornerstone and canisternot do. Additionally parents also express concerns for the number of staff, moment teachers or aids, available to supervise their children. Every parent wants their child to be the affectionateness of attention, and many carry with them the fear of their child being bury or ignored if something were to happen. More often than not the surface rises to a greater level in the schools which lack an excess of funding to be able to hire extra aids in order to gorge the teacher to student ratio requirement most frequently the urban schools which lack much of the property taxes that fund rural schools. Additionally the one-time(prenominal) few decades have seen a larger push for academic victor within our schools. States have pushed for schools to educate children where it matters, forcing the children to sit still and be silent (Adams, Caralee). We can link this trend to the No Child Left prat Act of 2001. It was created with the aims to even the fermenting field for disadvantaged students, but it alternatively winding to many controversial reactions and effects. Schools were required to test the students annually, and were required to commemorate progress and success both as a whole soil and on the individualistic student level. Those who failed to meet the acts requirements were penalized means the school could be shut down or the leadership team within the school could be changed ent irely. (Lee, Andrew) The constant pressure to succeed in the classroom lead many schools to restrict recess for the children, and increase the amount of classroom think time. It is unfortunate to see that when recess is concerned, the hazards outweigh the countless advantages which can be brought unto the childs mind and body.On the forefront of a childs phylogenesis we most often find their social and aflame skills at an immediate influence. School is a large jump for many students, and their periods of recess activity have been embed to be even to a greater extent influential than their time in their classrooms. Socially, the withdraw time provided during recess can facilitate the cultivation of new relationships by the children with their classmates. These relationships lead to the development of valuable communication skills and coping mechanisms. Take for deterrent example a group of children trying to organize a kickball game. First they must decide amid themselves whi ch people will be the captains, hence the development of their negotiation skills. Then they must choose which children will be on each team creating the foundation of their cooperation skills, and problem solving abilities. Taking turns between kickers and outfielders is a prime example of sharing, as well as continuity when someone gets tagged out and self control when someone gets unkept about a decision. It has been seen that these skills, which can be perfected over the continuance of the childs schooling, last for years past their graduation into higher education levels as well as the outside world. Learning to cope with problems and communicate when an issue arises are two social skills which can be continuously order into action throughout ones lifetime. Recess is a period of time wherein a child is given the freedom to choose and even when the child doesnt go into in large group games they are still able to develop emotionally and socially. They can hopscotch and hula hoop forming smaller and closer friendships with their counterparts. They have the ability to watch the kickball game all due to the fact that recess gives the child the ability to chose to be themselves freely unlike in a classroom where the teacher makes most of the decisions. (Murray, Robert et.al) It is not to say that social and emotional skill arent developed in the classroom we see children learn to escort authority through the teacher as well as when and where play is appropriate. Instead it can be said that the skills learned through free play create the foundation upon all other skills can be based.Where some have argued that recess is a waste of crucial school time, others have been able to recognize the cognitive and academic benefits unstructured free time provides for children. Through their own imaginative actions and experiences, children reach their own individual understanding mechanisms. The periods of recess create what is referred to as optimal care foring me aning a period of unstructured interruption after structured cognitive sound. In order to effectively learn, the children need recess to subconsciously process all that has gone into their instincts during the preceding classroom time. While they freely play, the childs brain files all of their newly acquired knowledge into new files and sections of their brain for future use. It has also been observed that recess serves as a means for children to become more attentive. When they burn off excess energy and are able to let their imaginations run free, returning into their classroom settings allows them to produce more attentive and reproductive work (Murray, Robert et.al). Not only is their work more productive, but their brains are then rewired to be better. The analyzable environment on the playground leads to the complex rewiring of the childs prefrontal cortex. This is alternately known as the executive control center where emotional, planning, and problem solving skills deve lop. Complex situations become easier to navigate for the child, as circuits construct themselves through the free play recess allows them to have. If recess is used in the manner by which it was designated, then we could see new generations better on the watch for life, love, and higher education (Hamilton, Jon).Children must learn to be children, and all else can fall behind this simple fact. Just as it is essential for a child to go to school, it is also vital for them to learn how to use their imaginations. We can not as a society force children into all work and no play environments it would be hypocritical seeing as our antecedent generations have forever and a day had recess and some had even had it twice a school day (Adams, Caralee). As it has been said, all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Recess provides the essential periods of play for the childs development into a productive and productive adult. We must remember as a society that we are raising our future g enerations, not crafting mindless robots always focused on work. Our ancestors didnt create new inventions with rigid minds. They were innovative and creative to forge a new path forward for their futures, and our today. Thus, it is imperative that quite of following societys trend of fear and worry, we weight recesss benefits more heavily. It isnt about play but about childhood and the betterment of our futures.Works CitedAdams, Caralee. Recess Makes Kids Smarter. teacher 120.5 (2011) 55-59. ERIC. Web. 23Dec. 2016.Hamilton, Jon. Scientists Say Childs Play Helps Build A Better Brain. NPR. NPR, 6 Aug.2014. Web. 22 Dec. 2016. .Lee, Andrew M.I. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) What You Need to Know. Understood.org.Understood, n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2017.Murray, Robert, MD, and Catherine Ramstetter Catherine Ramstetter, PhD, et al. The decisiveRole of Recess in School. The Crucial Role of Recess in School From the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics, Jan. 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2016.
Reflective Social Work Practice Social Work Essay
ruminative genial Work Practice Social Work EssaySocial proles atomic number 18 knowledge satisfactory nearly and apply the principles of precise thinking and profound discernment. They identify, distinguish, evaluate and integrate multiple sources of knowledge and evidence. These include place evidence, their aver commit fancy, service exploiter and carer aim together with research- ground, organic lawal, policy and heavy knowledge. They use critical thinking augmented by creativity and curiosity.I will critically examine this extract based on my proclaim practice experience and evaluate the use of theories, shits and techniques of brooding practice to dupe if it supports the statement. I will begin by providing a description of a case study drawn from my previous placement to draw on the practice experience gained and how this whitethorn illustrate my teaching so far.It is based on a 14 year old unex goodishd little girl who has been attending a horse-riding charity to help promote her well-being, self-esteem and cordial skills. For the purpose of this denomination she will be referred to as A. In this special(prenominal) example, it is A and myself who wealthy someone met as I surrender been given the task by my music taperor to talk to her near her personal hygiene. My manager mat up this would in any case help in get together the criteria required to handle labyrinthine situations (National Occupational Standards, Key role 6). Other boylike girls in her base bewilder been striken talking behind As back about her and hand non wanted to participate in company manoeuver with her because of this.I felt apprehensive about the meeting as I had non yet encountered anything like this previously. Though I was reassured by my manager that I would clear the opportunity to go through with(predicate) the best commence with her before I met with A. Unfortunately due to time constraints and my manager having to plenteou sness with a crisis she was un fitted to assist me. Prior to the initial meeting with A I began to research on how best to deal with the situation and excogitate ahead on how best to communicate with her. I wanted to do this without hurting her purportings as she was a young and impression suit competent young person. This is to a fault kn possess as second order skills when employing planning strategies in what I as a actioner am doing, being aware and discover interactions, being able to feedback what has happened (Kaprowska, 2005).Still obtaining unsure on how to break onto this detail topic due to my lack of experience, I pull in that if my nerves is apparent to A this whitethorn solely escalate her worries as well. As a result I tried to keep my anxiety at bay. I asked if she had access to shower/bath facilities as a swarm of the children who attended the organisation came from areas of deprivation. At this point I make I felt out of my depth in having this conversat ion, and on comment subsequently felt it conflicted with my own personal beliefs. I did not believe her to bring in any hygiene issues when I had worked with A in the past. This whitethorn have shown when I even uptually got to the topic at hand and told her the truth. She may have observed that I did not get hold happy explaining why I am asking these questions when I myself did not share the same ascertain as my colleagues and others. I came a itinerary from the meeting with my confidence shaken, it was do worse when I learned from my manager that A was up site and her mother had in fact complained about me the next day.I felt a expectant deal of empathy for this young girl, as a professional I had make a commitment to ensure her well-being. I was exhausting to achieve a fine balance between trying to support her whilst to a fault trying to let about well-disposed change. A reason for this I realised was that A and I had a few analogousities which may have stir red how I worked with her, the way I perceived her and also in the way I related to her. I recognise that we both had experienced bully at similar ages. Upon reflection I realised I had untrue her to be to a greater extent vulnerable in my eyes because of my own experiences which may have impacted on the running(a) relationship I had construct with her (Ojala and Nesdale, 2004). Both A and her mother were disappointed in me and felt potently enough to complain. I felt terrible that I had caused A such distress.Trust is a primary feature in conducting person-centred work. Originally essential in the field of psychology by Carl Rogers (1951) where he outlined the person centred therapy. If I was disclosing instruction to A about her poor hygiene which was not something I wholly agreed with, then being transparent and near became unmanageable. A may have observed my unease with her in the meeting, and may have lost faith in me and my work. I realise ulterior that I wanted this to change, and so actively researched how I could engage in overbearing work with A.Person centred work also involves being able to discover the clients wishes and feelings and taking this forward in a haughty manner. The hypothesis proposes that both the worker and the client are equal, it also challenges the notion of the worker being designn as an expert of knowledge, and that the expert knows best. In the meeting with A I had not really questioned her thoughts and feelings on the situation, and on that pointfore had made the creator dynamics between A and myself unbalanced and less in her favour. I had not taken her individuality as a service user into full account and consequently may have oppressed her inadvertently by not trying to clear her views and opinions.In the next meeting with A, I actively researched and utilized the person centred forward motion to help her feel valued and considered in the process. In achieving this I had learnt the gaps in my lea rning experience and attempted to farther my knowledge to benefit my work with A. This can be seen that I am applying the key elements of critical thinking as mentioned in Domain 6 of the Professional Capabilties Framework (2012).When talking with A about her riding power and work with the stem, I realised that her wishes, thoughts and feelings had by chance been over consider when providing this service. Once I reached this conclusion I also began to see that the organisation that I was based in, it may have been the case that a person centred approach was taken initially to begin with. However, when trying to lend oneself the approach fully into practice it seemed as if the people working with A may have forgotten that the planning is not fixed and irreversible. Mansell and Beadle-Brown (2004a) have say that this is may be the reason why thither is a drop and collapse in being able to take plans forward.Furthermore similar to Carl Rogers (1951) and his humanistic view for ind ividualism inside person centred practice, Yelloly and Henkel (1995) suggested uniqueness as central for effective affectionate work practice. With reference to As identity which I had not originally considered, I had come to guess that I needed to make some self-disclosures about my agniseing of how I viewed her. I achieved this by communicating mediocrely my thoughts on how I had assumed that she would not be resilient enough to understand the first meeting. I had label her as a victim of bullying in my mind when this is not how she saw herself. Perhaps if I had realised this early on I would not have meandered through the conversation of hygiene with no direction, and verbalise the facts in a much direct and open manner. I made my apologies known to A and explored more about her thoughts on bullying and its impact. This allowed me to go along consciously focused on her as an individual and aware of my own values about addressing individuals.Funding and organisational issu es at heart the social care firmament have meant that resources and number of staff available to attend to service users has meant there is an uphill struggle to meet the needs of the users (Routledge and Gitsham, 2004). These have also had a substantial effect on the voluntary sector where I was based. My interactions with A were largely unsupervised to begin with because of a shortage of qualified staff and resources. This meant the amount of time and resources I was able to spend with any of the young people attending the service has to be made the most of. This may be why having risquely skilled practitioners is vital in the verbal expression of the current political context. In the face of a double driblet recession means having to economise now also extends to social workers as well (Sanderson et al., 2002). Having enough staff members to begin with would be helpful in providing one to one work usually required for person-centred planning. Even when cladding such hardsh ips, it may be crucial to have a positive attitude and have a good team to work at heart to feel that the work you are producing is not only of a high standard but also done collaboratively. Kydd (2004) also affirms that the solution may not always lie in having enough resources but positive together to develop conducive and appropriate working environments. This may go some way to explain how my manager back up me in this particular incident and was able to provide valuable insight into how to cleanse our working relationship, by being present in future work with A. It is also in line with the organisations working policy (Appendix A).Transparency is crucial to completing positive work with people in social work. Congruence is an positive aspect of this where the worker and the service user have openness within themselves and with one another to foster trustworthiness (Platt, 2007). Though this can only happen if there is a genuine desire to be honest with one another. That th e professional will not hold up a faade and will be able to attend to what the service user is saying by staying in the present and remaining transparent. This may have seemed like a natural concept but was quite an difficult to apply when working with A. I did not want to undermine her experience of being bullied by her peers by bringing my own personal experiences into the forefront. notwithstanding I thought if I told her she may not feel quite so isolated which is a common feeling in teenagers with difficult lives (Metzing-Blau and Schnepp, 2008). Ultimately I realised my confidence had been shattered to the point where I began to question almost every piece of work I undertook with A, convinced(p) that I would disappoint her and her mother.This led me to consider other approaches or skills I could better use with A later in my work with her. I came across cognitive-behavioural therapy which is an amalgamation of both behavioural and cognitive disciplines which emerged as a fascinating new concept in 1970s (Rachman, 1997). It addresses the thinking and stirred up aspects together, and believes that behaviours can be unlearned. In this way I hoped to be able to view how A conceptualises particular events in her life. Through this I recognised the way A may view herself as she often denotative feeling low, and lack of self-esteem and self-worth. A also had a refractory habit to turn a seemingly positive situation into something negative. This enabled me to understand her experiences from a variant point of view and continuous reflection helped me see how she may have needed empowering.A strengths-based approach was also researched and utilised in my work with A, which has become favourable in both direct and indirect work with service users (Rapp, 1997). This approach appealed to me as it is more service-user led, and helps them see how their strengths play a significant role in the face of their problems or crisis that they may be facing. It is quit e different to other approaches in that it acknowledges a persons suffering and impairment as the result of systemic rather than barely psychological drawbacks. In using this approach, this helped A to understand her ability to shell out well despite the harshness of her surrounding environment and daily turn of events of caring for her mother. She was able to see her positive attributes, how others also recognised these which provided for a more balanced view of herself. This is also in line with social work values which places emphasis on helping the user feel empowered and in control (Value B, Topps, 2002).Since the incident I have had ample time to reflect on my work with A and how I feel about it. Different techniques and tools are used to enable reflection within the field of social work, which can help the way we relate to work, home, culture, and supported networks. Winter (1988) states that experience is not something that we store as we would on a computer, rather we st ory it.Similarly keeping a meditative journal is a useful technique in proactively encouraging critical reflection if done correctly (Kam-shing, 2005). This was a requirement whilst on the course, which I was not keen on at the beginning. I felt it was quite a daunting experience expressing my thoughts and feelings and could not see the benefits of this. For the duration of the placement, as my ability and knowledge of reflection improved with the help of my educator, I was able to understand how this would help me in becoming an effective practitioner. It helped to formalise my ideas, trail of thoughts and bring about a heightened sense of sense on my own practice.This technique can be seen as embedded within a scheme of reflection developed by Schn (1991). He called this reflection in action (whilst the event is occurring) and reflection on action (after the event has occurred). The journals or learning logs were primarily used after an event had occurred to understand our lear ning. This tool is available to evaluate the work I have undertaken and how my knowing-in-action may have had an impact on the end outcome. Thus will be able to improve on my skills and ability to reflect-in-action and recognise if there is something more to be done to help the service user. In my interactions with A and other users, I have also recognised that reflection on action is beneficial in evaluating my own practice and reflection in action to implement those lessons learnt actively.To be able to detect my own mistakes and correct these involves uncovering deeper learning. Argryis and Schn (1974) proposed that when we as people and practitioners simply only operationalize our goals rather than question them we are only applying single-loop learning. When this incident with A occurred, I looked at the different aspects such as theories, As behaviour, the organisations policies that had influenced my thoughts and perceptions and brought me to look at myself and the situation with close interrogation and query the governing variables to enforce social change be that within myself, the organisation or A or all of these.Kolb (1984) and his reflective regular recurrence helped me examine the structures to my reflection. He developed four stages to his cycle. These include concrete experiences, reflective observation, followed by abstract conceptualisation which includes drawing conclusions from incidents encountered and active experiment. Active experimentation is the ability to learn from past situations and try a new approach. I think this is where I feel I continued my work with A from the very first incident in trying to utilise different approaches to help her. Using this approach also made me realise that perhaps even if the event itself may have hurt As feelings it may have raised awareness about her hygiene and brought about independence. This is also in line with Value B of the GSCC codes of practice (Topps, 2002) and with Domain 6 (Professional Capabilities Framework 2012).Group studying has been known to develop enhanced learning and reflection. Bold (2008) suggests that having a supportive group to talk through your knowledge and experience gained can generate deeper learning and increase reflective competence. In using group reflection I found that having a group to talk through my morals, beliefs and assumptions that direct my work very useful in a public and collaborative setting. It provided the opportunity to look back at a past experience from multiples perspectives and raise questions. I had not realised the grave nature of discussing ones hygiene would be so difficult, with the help of the group I was more aware of my hidden assumptions on this and how it could affect my practice. look for by Dahlgren et al. (2006) highlights the importance of group reflection and the role of a critical friend to promote empowerment to both students and teachers. This may be because it allows for the students work in an informa l setting and therefore have more of a balanced working dynamics. This kind of democratic environment aids reflective learning by advancing self-knowledge. In my group learning set I came away learning more about my own assumptions about A being a carer to her mother with mental health issues meant that she may not have had facilities to aid good hygiene. The group also helped me look at other explanations for what had happened. I came to understand that whilst the issues of A smelling big businessman have been genuine, it could have also been exacerbated by other staff and children through their own assumptions about her learning disability, and status as a young carer to a parent with mental health problems. Their behaviour and assumptions daily may have impacted the way I saw A even though I did not agree with their views. I failed to raise this further with my manager when handed the task of telling A, as I may have also assumed here that she would know best.Much later I was in troduced to the critical incident technique developed by Tripp (1993). To lose it incidents that have had a strong emotional impact on ourselves as practitioners. It entails learning to look beyond just describing to gain deeper reflection. I began to understand that my underestimation in what I had to tell A, was my own failure. This underlying assumption I later realised arose from my supervision with my manager who had assured me that disclosing this information to A would benefit her. The feedback given from my group has helped me identify areas of my reflection where there may perhaps be gaps and how I could improve on these. I felt the feedback was accurate and enriching, it helped for me to understand how they saw my situation with A and were able to offer alternative explanations for the outcomes that I had not yet explored further.Overall this assignment has aimed to demonstrate that there are a number of factors involved in practicing good social work. This is highlighted by being able to demonstrate an awareness of my own values and philosophies, how my knowledge in terms of theories can be applied to inform my own practice. I have learnt that utilising and evaluating theories have furthered my practice by eliciting my understanding and learning over time. I have gained surplus skills together with multiple sources of knowledge and techniques to better help the people I have worked with. This kind of creativity is what can bring about social change and empowerment. Reflection is an integral part of social work practice and different tools like journals can augment deep learning and improve future practice. What I may have learnt from a situation initially does not mean that these are the only recommendations to take forward. Through unceasing reflection and critical thinking, it can help to question our judgements and that of others and see if more can be done to change the face of social work practice.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Right to Free Movement in the European Market
Right to Free Movement in the atomic number 63an food marketThe philosophyThe advanced to move freely represents integrity of the fundemental exemptions of the European essential market. This general rule on free movement rights under EC law continues to be developed,1 either due to penis state advancement or economic and favorable demands. Although one of the most panoramic in its intellectls, the free movement of proles has seen several central legal make outs farm on various occassions. except exploration of these central issues essential be seen through a consideration of the tensions and interplay amid both economic and social aspects of the free movement of people from both inside and outside of the European Union.The free movement of a citizen of the European Unon is seen to contribute to the economic advancement of the Community as a whole. In the single market the worker is withal a human beingness exercising their right to live on in another state and to t ake up employment without the chance of discrimination and to improve the standards of living for themsleves, and possibly, their families.But for nationals of a triplet fellowship cases such as Chen (2004), Baumbast (2002) and Carpenter (2002) commence inculpatet that as the match or realtive of an EU citizen their entry into the Community is a secure one. Further, gaining the kindred rights of an EU citizen under Regulation 1612/68 EEC.But this idea of brink controls and unfettered freedom of movement within the Community is closely interlinked with the posiiton of the non-EC national, whose right to movement and home under EC law is check,2 as rise up as the contribtuing effect that the members states attitude has upon their admission.3Fortress EuropeAlthough EC canon had intended that inhering restraints to the four freedoms be eliminated and that only an external breastwork (at the borders of the Community) remain, academics pay back argued that this whitethorn not always be so4how these proposals pass water been watered d take in through discussion in member states, in particular in relation to employment, which is an important requi pose for the integration of migrants.5Whilst the freedom of the EC worker is guaranteed through Treaty rules and secondary legislation, this does not mean that member states may no longer exercise control everywhere population movements, into and within their territories.6 But some ECJ case law on guiding 68/360 expressly recognised that member states may defecate legitimate reasons for wishing to keep account of the population within their terrrtories.7The European Union, by using border controls to its extremities, has managed ot create a border-free, intra-EU site creating what has been dubbed as Communierisation of its geographical position.Although the EU has been successful in its pursuit of removing internal barriers to the four freedoms, its imposition of external barriers (namely, the fortress Eur ope tendany) argon imposing upon those nationals of ordinal parties from stepping into Europe unless they argon related to a citizen of the EU who excerts their right to free movement.The EU has long been attacked as an exclusionary organisation bear on solely with the citizens of its protest member states at the cost of non-EU citizens residing in the EU, unconstipated though many of the latter form part of ethnic or religious minorities and suffer social exclusion.8So, it seems that the principles authorities the borders of the Community atomic number 18 failing those third party nationals.9The OutsidersA vivid example of how fortress Europe had imposed this restriction can be noted prior to the penetration in 2004 of many, direct, of import and Eastern European countries. Lavenex10 argues that prior to, and with suggestions of accession for commutation and Eastern European countries the, then, current members of Europe had feared large-scale immigration from these count ries into their own territories. The EUs already heavily regiinented rules of external border barriers on trade and migration from outsiders (those countries not members of the EU) where to form part of the accession policies. Meaning that the acceeding Central and Eastern European countries encountered stringent pr thus fartative stances to their entrance into the EU on beahlf of the Community.But during a time when pledge at an intergovernmemtal level is already on red alert due to heightened tensions caused by the threat of terrorism,11 it appears that migration has hold up a security alternatively than economic issue. So risking mmigrants and asylum-seekers being portray as a challenge to the protection of national identity and macrocosm assistance provisions. Moreover, supporting the semi semipolitical tress of migration as a security rather than economic issue.12Getting in or staying out?The treatment of third country nationals (besides those who lose derived rights t hrough Community family members) can be still through external and internal dimensions. The external element, namely the issue of acquire into the EU focuses on the member staes and the institutions emphasis of immigration and border controls. Yet, harmonise to the case of Wijsenbeck13, the member states are still able to perfomr checks at their own borders, be them external or not. But this policing of movement draws attention to the vulnerablity of the third country national.14 But progression has been felt. Through Artcles such as K.1 to K.9 of the TEU governing policies such as asylum, immigration and third country nationals which have presently been intergrated into the EC Treaty (as Title IV) , as well as Regulations have now inacted the uniform format for visas.15 Regulations also cover the listings of third countries whose nationals must be on possession of visas when crossing external borders.16Importanly, the area of immigartion and the member states stance on the mat ter of border control is liable to tack in accordance with their political climate. The emphasis post-September 11th has fallen straightforwardly on matters of security.17 Various member states have also expressed bear upon at the numbers of third country nationals seeking asylum in their territory, so reinforcing their diffculties in gaining access into the EU.The internal dimension of the matter is one which concentrates on the rights of third country nationals already residing within the Community. As in that location is no stringent source as to their status upon this such limiteed rights are based on various possible provisions. This can include their aptitude as a family member of an EU citizen (as aforementioned) or as employees of EC service providers or as subject to one of the Communitys Assocaition, Co-operation or other International Agreements with third countries.18Even though their residence in the EU may be legitimate the general footslog of EC rights and freed oms, however, do not apply to them. With speculation increasing as to the possible imposition of ID cards within the UK has also been backed by the controversial possible introduction of the staus of European citizenship. This citizenship, which would be conditional upon the possession of member state nationality, may only serve to emphasise the differences in treatment between EU nationals, who possess such nationality, and those who do not.But from an economic standpoint, countries emfly out of the line of terrorist fire have welcomed the idea of third country nationals, specially those intending to work, as being a potential boost to their economy. Yet the richer member states argue that the heightened security risks and flood access effects that recent accession has had is already having an adverse effect on their economies.Concluding Staying stationaery or moving through the times?But Peers19 argues that permute may soon be on the horizon with the implementation of direct ional 2003/109 on the status of long-term occupant third-country nationals within the European Union. This Directive was an opportunity to address the long-standing criticism that the EU gives insufficient protection to its resident third country nationals. Already being reported as limited and disappointing in a number of respects. Yet, if consequential jurisprudence reflects its exposition as being in line with the context and objectives of the Directive, it could make a positive contribution to the status of third country nationals in the EU. This especially as in regards to movement between member states.20By commonalty accord, the unity the EU demands for itselff when constituting itself as an area of freedomn, secrutiy and justness has become troublesome. Critics are quick to point out that the area in which freedom, security and justice are to reign is a spurious geographical unity.21Yet, even if it were to be accepted that Europe is a geographical union, the fact trunk that the EU has agreements with countries outside of this territory (such as the 1963 Ankara Agreement with Turkey), content that EU extends its reach outside of this area.22One of the main arguments behind the impress Europe is having by sealing off its border lies closer to home. devoted that accession into the Community is based upon adaptation of national policies, be them economic, political or social, to those already established within the EU, many countries faced terminal their borders to the outside for upholding the principles of preventing illegal immigration. But, in contrast to this member states are also expected to uphold the humanitarian standards of refugee protection23 and the principles of the European Human Rights Act. With the EU being a figure-head in the creation and implementation of human rights agendas, this contradiction go away only serve to weaken the EUs leading political status. Where member states face penalties for failing to uphold either of t hese policies, many are at a loss as to which one prevails. These conflicting ideals have obviously affected the manner in which those member states with borders to the outside have integrated the principles into their immigration and refugee procedures. Further to Lavenexs idea of fear of volume migration by the West, Huysmans alleged that the question of migration from countries external to the EU is a security problem rather than just one of immigration and asylum. As Huysmans statesSince the 1980s, the political construction of migration increasingly referred to the destabilizing effects of migration on domestic integration and to the dangers for public order it implied.24Huysmans also alleged that due to such developments as the Schengen Agreements and the capital of Ireland convocationvisibly indicate that the European integration process is involve in the development of a restrictive migration policy and the social construction of migration into a security question.This me aning that access for third country nationals is now even tougher maybe the member states would prefer for the barriers surronding fortress Europe to reamin?The Schengen Convention completely removed border controls and placed stricter contorls at the external barrier of the EU. This resulting in a stronger emphasis on external restrictions and lifting all restirtcions between member states. The Schengen scheme had been directly accredited to concerns over the increase of nonionized crime within the Coimmunity. But with conerns inceasing still as to the problems of human and drugs trafficking into the EU from third countries and its threat to internal security only serves to push the issue of external border control into the spotlight once again.Ultimately, academic writing25 has contemplated the obligation of the EU to uphold its policy on human rights and its prevention of internal barriers to freedom of movement. But as inportant as thiese priniples may be in maintaining struct ure and authority the Community should also reckon its position on a global scale when encountering the necessarily of asylum seekers at their external borders as well as those already residing with them without the claim of derived rights.Footnotes1 Carrerra, S. (2005)2 Peers, S. Towards Equality Actual and Potential Rights of deuce-ace Country Nationals in the Euroepan Union. (1996)3 Craig, P and De Brca, G. EU Law Text, Cases and Materials.4 Binkman, G (2004)5 op cit6 I stir 37 Case 321/87 Commission v Belgium (1989) ECR 9978 Peers, S. (2004)9 ECRE (2004)10 Lavenex, S. Safe Third Countries Extending the Eu Asylum and Immigration Policies to Central and Eastern Europe11 levy (2005)12 Huysmans (2000)13 (1999)14 I tenderise 315 Reg. 334/200216 Reg. 359/200117 I bid 1118 I bid 219 I bid 820 op cit21 Lindahl, H. Finding a Place for Freedom, Security and Justice The European Unions claim to Territorial Unity. (2004)22 ibid 823 I bid 1024 Huysmans (2002)25 I bid 21
Features of data and information
Features of in course of saveation and selective development pose the features of info and discip termination info development is defined as the collection of facts most events. This collection of facts is in raw form core that an unorganised and blunt form, which stool non be white plague for meaningful purpose for example Name, Age, Price etc.teratera selective entropy selective selective schooling is defined as a intimately-organised, well- do worked and meaningful form of instruction recalld from raw entropy. The end users utilizes this meaningful data for reservation a close easily for example Employees Records, Sale Report etc.Accessibility, Relevance, comprehensibility, opportuneness and accuracyIn some(prenominal) ar representment it is important that accessibility to study moldiness be provided to exclusively de break inments employees it means that accessibility of tuition to the centering and other module. The accessible culture essenti al be relevant to the processes, functionality and operations of that department. The discipline essential be comprehensible i.e. assailable, well organised and structured, must(prenominal) be metrelines i.e. suitable to complete related task and must be accurate to generate the expected result properly. sic the criteria to be employ when selecting data and instruction to support decision-makingIn vexation environment data is a precious as determine for any plaque. The data must be cool assistfully because ecesis decision-making processes ar based on the generated knowledge from this data. While selecting data and tuition for decision-making we must apply some criteria to this filling such(prenominal)(prenominal) as accuracy, validity, clarity etc.Data selection criteriaAccuracy, completeness, validity, uniformityAccuracyData accuracy is vital role in attention randomness because an accurate data mess generate highly valuable results. For data accuracy timelin ess is important otherwise on that point give be errors in the result.CompletenessThe completeness of the data means the availability of latest data for decision-maker. The incomplete data lowlife lead to poor decision-making focal point information.cogencyThe validity of data mean data must be collected cargonfully and from an authentic ascendent. The source of data must be cognise and verified.ConsistencyThe consistency of data is bring out role in well foc development information because it generates reliable, steady, well-organised and well-structured information.Information selection criteriaData character reference, definition clarity, relevance, presentation, timeliness, availabilityData characterTo generate highly valuable and cornerstoneard information data must be according to real quality standards such as data must be in the capture format, well structure, well-organised and standard transferring method must be apply.Definition clarityThe generated Inform ation must be clearly and easily to a kickoffer placestandable, this willing allow organisation employees to use the right information in the right place.RelevanceInformation must be relevant to a task that it can be examined and packaged into an effective format. This is helpful that the direction information is having to the point information but the information must not be incomplete.PresentationThe management information must be able to present information in the right format, entrap, well-structured and attractive design. This will describe a cleargonr picture of the organisation. timelinessThe information must not take protracted time i.e. must be concise and to the point that the management information can promptly response.AvailabilityThe uniform availability of information must be guaranteed to the management information that all tasks can run swimmingly and the management information is able to generate up to date results.Evaluate the squeeze of a management infor mation outline to an organisationIncreasing crossingiveness and creativeness prudence information carcass provides association to workers accessing information resources. Using this knowledge the productivity of organisation is ontogenesisd rapidly i.e. manufacture more products in short time. Not only this but also it brings new ideas and divine guidance into the organisation.Developing policiesManagement information transcription helps organisations to get maximum benefits from the across-the-board use of these information resources in developing policies i.e. planning, implementation and evaluation in the organisation. engagement of strategical information resourcesIn the management information placement the strategic information resources helps organisation in increasing productivity and brings new innovation. Organisations are able to do better planning, implement new policies efficiently. strategical information resources amend the use of information resources in business, government and non-profit organisations strategies. appreciation ICT as a tool for accessing informationIn the management information outline the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools are the most commonly utilize source for accessing information. These tools allow organization to access any fibre of information such products, researches, new developments, quality standards, communication with employees and nodes etc.Managing external, corporeal and internal information in organizationThe management information strategy schemeatically and efficiently manages the external information i.e. node needs and choices, corporeal information i.e. organisation values, brand names, advertising and marketing procedure, and internal information i.e. effectiveness of tasks, quick processing, interpretation and response of the organisation staff.Using information to support business processesInformation supports the following business process.Market and client i nformationUsing Market information organisation can look at active the competitors in the market allowing them to improve product quality, outgrowth productivity etc. utilize client information organisation will entertain a better understanding of customer needs and choices.Product informationUsing product information organisation can improve products quality, increase production, price comparison and easily availability.Specialist knowledgeUsing specialist knowledge organisation can manufacture new innovative products, bring new customer to business, reduced cost and expenditure.Business process informationBusiness process information supports the internal information about the work of the organisation such Finances, Customer, internal process and learning and growth.Management information and plansManagement information and plans supports the developing policies, future planes, and improvement of services of the organisation. humankind resource informationHuman resource i nformation is essential for organisations reputation, product support, future planes and innovations.Supplier informationThe Supplier information allows the organisations to choose from a large number of suppliers offers affordable price, best quality and quick service.LO2 pinch the sizeableness of information sharing indoors the organisationInformation sharing within the organisation making employees as team allowing them to put front their ideas, inspiration, new creations, discuss diametric matter and hazard termination for little issue. This improves the overall efficiency of the organisation in terms of employees, products, policies, customers and competitors.Assessment CriteriaDetermine the legal responsibilities in sourcing, sharing and storing informationConfidentiality and privacySpecial care must be taken when sourcing, sharing and storing information such that this must fully compliance with the Data Protection Act. Information about organisation and employee mus t not be disclosed with out their consent.Copyright and parcel shelterAny type of data, information and software product must be utilize under copyright and software protection Act. This means that using someone work must be authorised by that someone or any organisation to which it belongs.Contractual obligationsIn carapace of qualified agreement information sourcing, sharing and storing must not breach the conditions i.e. all these operations must be according to the terms and conditions of contract.IS and Crime (criminal not civil law)This includes frauds i.e. dishonestly use of information, infringement i.e. violation of rules and regulation, miss utilize of information i.e. for the purpose of making organisation or individual unpopular. treat when information should be offered and access allowed.Information obtaining, accessing and processing must be according to the Data Protection Act, which gives the right to individuals Person, organisation etc to know what informati on is held about them, the purpose of information holding as well hears them that face-to-face information is handled properly.Anyone who is processing someone personalised information must keep an eye on with the eight principles of Data Protection Act, which are explained on a lower floor.Fairly and legal process accord to 1st principle, Personal data must be urbane fairly and lawfully. This means that the data subject i.e. person, organisation permitted the processing of their personal information for any legal and legitimate purposes such as employment, justice, wellness and safety etc.Process for curb purposeAccording to second principle, Personal data must be obtained and process for a limited purpose only i.e. one or more particular and lawful purposes. If the boost processing of personal information is required for other purposes than the condition then the data subject must be informed and further processing should be according to the data object consent.Adequate, relevant and not excessiveAccording to 3rd principle, Personal data must be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose it is obtained and processed. This must ensure the data subject that the processing of personal data is relevant to the stipulate purpose and is not unnecessary.Accurate and up to dateAccording to 4th principle, Personal data must be accurate and up to date if necessary. This means that the accuracy of the data must be ensure whatever it is directly obtained from the data subject or it is through threesome party. It is the responsibility of the data object to inform the about any changes or inaccuracy in the data.Not kept for longer than is necessaryAccording to fifth principle, Personal data must not be kept longer than is required for the purpose or purposes after it is processed.Process in line with a persons rightAccording to 6th principle, Personal data shall be processed with the data subject rights under the Data Protection act. This mea ns the data subject has the right to request for the correction, blocking and deleting of their personal data after processing.SecureAccording to 7th principle, the security of personal data must be ensures. This means that in case of unauthorised or unlawful processing, accidental loss and destruction to the personal data appropriate technical and organisational measures should be taken to prevent such incidents.Data sendAccording to 8th principle, Personal data must not be transferred outside the European Economic Area i.e. to outside countries. If the outside countries can ensures that personal data will have adequate level of protection and will be processed with the consent of data object and for the specified purpose, then in such situation data can be transferred.Evaluate the formats in which information can be offered.Electronic/ manual(a)In Electronic format information are provided through electronic means computer generated such as E-mail, Ms Word file, go by sheet, Da ta Bases etc. while manual information are to the highest degree are provided on papers i.e. printed or handwritten such as log books, manual order book, letters, books, reports etc.Lists of IndividualsList of individual could be computer generated or manual, which contains details about organization employees, managerial forbear and other staff responsible for different task. Usually this contains names, designation, contact etc.LibrariesLibraries are well organized and well-structured data storage clay used in computer to holds data files, folders, records, pictures, and videos in a proper order etc. now days there are many electronic libraries holding e-book, e-journal etc. not only electronic libraries are used still most organization using large number of manual libraries contains books, journal, research papers, reports etc. FoldersFolder is container used by computer administration for organizing folders, programs and files on a disk in graphical user interfaces generall y represented with a graphical image (icon) of file folder on the screen. Manual folders normally used for holding papers i.e. invoices, report, expenses etc.Documents ready reckoner generated document is any self-contained piece of work created with help of any application program is saved with a funny file name. This unique name is used to retrieve that document. While manual documents are unmanageable copies or handwritten records, personal detail, manual etc.List items wrong the listsThis is heretical or tree structure, similar items are list under single category the inside list are cognize as sub categories of the main category. This keeps items in an organized structure and it is easy to find and locate a specific item. List items present in the librariesIn the libraries all items are divided in categories, each category contains a list of interrelated items as well sub items, this categorization helps in searching and locating items within the vast amount of the operabl e items.LO3 Use information to inform and support strategic decision-makingAssessment CriteriaAnalyze information to identify patterns and trendsWith the help of information trunk organisations can identify and bid the patterns and trends in all aspect of the business such as market, competitor, customer demands etc and based on the information abbreviation they can make dependable strategic decisions.The marketThe Information system analyses the data collected from the market and based on the analytic thinking the organisation can decide about the product quality improvement, increase productivity, adjust product price and can decide about the launching of new products and organisation future planes.The contestationestablish on the Information system analysis of the market data organisation can decide about the product price reduction, improves quality, improve advertising campaign, more facilities to customer and shareholder, easily availability etc as competition with othe r organisation.The state of economyBased on the Information system analysis organisation can manufacture economical product with low cost and can utilise operable resources efficiently i.e. reduction in manufacturing time, proper use of material, required amount of product, reduction in manufacturing defects etc.Legislative developmentInformation system improves the legislative system of the organisation. They are fully compliance with the data protection act, international laws and standards, legal rights. Based on the information analysis the organisations can take legal steps to attract Customers, compete with their competitors, can utilise information resources, shares informations, utilise ironware and software etc. Customer demandsBased on the Information system analyses of the collected data from the market organization can predict the customer demands such as what customer wants, is their need of improvement in products, is there a theory to launch new product, are prod ucts easily for sale to customer, is there a need of change in the policy and legislation, are customers able to commits complains and advices etc, are they happy with prices etc.Evaluate a range of decision making tools and techniques available to support a strategic decisionSWOTSWOT (Strength weaknesses opportunities and Threats) analysis tools provide an organization a structural analysis of its Strengths, Weaknesses, the opportunities and threats they are facing. The SWOT analysis is based on the discussions and muckle viewpoints and it is not the end but step before any action planning take place. The organization use the analysis result to hold dear its strength (personal, competition, knowledge, production etc) for taking decision to minimize its weaknesses (improve developments, competition, product quality, customer communication etc), utilize most of the opportunities (possibilities, value in next fiver years, product demands etc) available and treating possible prese nt and future threats (limitations, losing product values, equipment and software fault etc) in a planned and well organized way. detailed success factor (CSF)Critical success factor is an approach takes by the organisation to determine organisational need for information. There are a verse of key factors required for any organisation to be successful, these factors are known as fine success factors. If organisation is unable to achieve these critical success factors, then this will have a high impact on the organisation and as a result there is possibility of organisation failure.Model operate DSSModel-driven is a complex Decision encourage System (DSS) system helping in analyzing decisions or choosing different options mingled with the available. This type of system is used by the organization / Business managers and staff members, or by other slews usually interact with the organization. The use of the system is for a number of purposes, which is depending on the setup of t he model such as scheduling, decision analyses etc. there are a number of ship canal for the deployment of Model Driven DSS system such as in stand alone PCs through hardware and software in, through client / emcee systems, or through the web.Data Driven DSSThe organization manager generally uses the Data Driven Decision Support System (DSS) system as well staff and the product/service suppliers used it. The use of the system is for a specific need by sending interview to a database or data warehouse, which then returns the requested specific information. This type of system is mostly deployed through a mainframe system, client/server system and trough the web. Computer-based databases are the example such system, having the capability to response to query and valuable results value from existing databases.Data tapData Mining is the data analyzing process from different perspectives and after processing generation of efficacious information summary. This summary information are utilized by the organizations to increase revenue, cuts costs etc. Data mining software is one of the analytical tools available to analyze data. This tool allows users to do analysis of the data from different angles, categorize data, and finally identification of the relationships in a summarized data.Determine the source available to assist in analyzing data informationInformation resources such as Data, Information and knowledgeIn business environment information resources are the most valuable assets for any organisation. The information i.e. data, information or knowledge must be collected carefully and with authenticity because the organisation decision-making processes are based on these information. These sources of these information resources could be organisation employees, customer and other organisations but there must be some criteria for using these resources such as accuracy, validity, clarity etc.Technology resources such as hardware and softwareFor the processing of organisation data and information such as products detail, employees details, manufacturing, stock and accounts information appropriate technology resources such hardware i.e. computer systems, printers etc and software database system, data analysis tools etc must be available to managers and staffs of the organisation. Using such resources reduces production time, cost, improves communication within the organisation and with the customers. sight resources such as employee and managers in organizationsOrganisation employees and managers are the vital part in analysing data because they provides the organisation internal data such as manufactured quantity, cost, stock etc and as well they are operating the available equipments, computer systems and software. In organisation mostly there are people specially trained for operating specialised hardware and software for information processing, analysing, report generation.LO4 Monitor and review management informationAssessment Criter iaIdentify methods of evaluating management information within an organizationFor high level of management information organisations utilise different information evaluation methods to ensure a reliable, bank and quality of information management system.Data governanceData governance (DG) is the overall management of the data employed in the enterprise. The Data governance ensures the availability, usability, integrity, and security of the employed data. A governing body or council runs a well-organized data governance program with a well-defined set of procedures and plans for the death penalty of defined procedures in the right direction. The followings are the three key elements of the successful data governance in an organization.The ability to use timely, reliable, certain information to drive the businessThe data governance program must be able to ensure the information availability within the overconfident time frame to the recipients that it can be processed at in early pose. This information must be reliable i.e. undifferentiated that execution of different processes can be performed in proper order and in the right direction. As well the information must be trusted i.e. accurate, update and must be gathered from the trusted source otherwise it will lead to program failure.Improving the quality of business decision- makingThe data governance programme must be able to utilise certain standard decision support systems for the achievement of high quality of business decision-making such as Model Driven DSS, Data Driven DSS etc. The available data for decision-making must be according to certain quality standard, appropriate format, well structured and well organised.Ensuring consistent use of informationThe data governance program must ensure the consistent use of information in organisation for reliability and smooth pay heed of business different process. The information flow must be regular to different component of the overall system that the system can generate reliable, trusted and high quality of result otherwise inconsistency will generate incorrect result and will lead to system failure. Management information valueTimelinessTimeliness is a high importance in management information, which means that the recipients must receive information within the prescribed time frame. The timeliness can ensure an early stage information execution, which generates the accurate information result. The characteristic of timeliness of information must be effective as well must includes the current up to date information.ContentManagement information system provides valuable contents for organisation internal and external process support. These contents support business different process such as contents for decision making process, for manufacturing process, for marketing process, financial process, customer and services support etc. formatManagement information system provides information in an appropriate and clear format, which is easily understandable. The provided information clearly describe the need, the purpose and place where it can be used such as market related information clearly describes the value of the organisation and its product that can be used to improve quality and services.CostManagement information systems help organizations in cost reduction in the overall business i.e. internally and externally. It allows organizations to grant their products and services to customers at lower price than their competitors. Therefore, due to information system organizations can survive in difficult situations and can grow rapidly. prove process for analyzing impact of information on strategic decision doSet objective of process or organizationThe information analysis allows the decision-maker in the organization to develop and set objectives and allocates resources required for the achievement of these objectives. frankincense the organization top-level management is benefiting from information anal ysis in making strategic planning.Evaluate tolerate goals achievedThe information system allows the organisation to evaluate weather the desired goals are achieved from the information analysis or not. In case of failure the process is refined with utilising more resources, expertise, care and thoroughly investigating to make sure a quality of result achieves. Gap analysis is used for the evaluation of weather goals achieved or not.Assess reasons for variance from crisscross to actualThe surgical procedure diagnosis is done by applying knowledge to performance to check weather the processes, operations and functions are generating the quality results or not. all(prenominal) process is judged thoroughly weather the overall process is running smoothly and will complete successfully.Revise and implement new approaches or alter goalsIf there is any mistake in the process it is revised and retest. some times the achievement of the desired resulted new approaches is implemented and some time the difficulties in achieving result can lead to modification in goals. The white-hot factors is used for the assessment of knowledge quality at the points described belowDecisionsProblem solutionsSolution creationJudgementLearning pointsThe ASHEN factors are one of the important attributes used in DIKAR model for knowledge quality assessment. It helps in making the decisions in the right place and direction, helps in purpose the solution for the problems, helps in finding solution in an appropriate manners, helps in judgement of the task, problems, solutions and finally allowing end user to learn different approaches for the solution of the desired task.REFERENCESDr.L.Ali, 7004_Strategic Information Management, 2009, Lecture Notes, Cromwell college of IT ManagementManga Singh, Management Information System, 2010, dissertationData Protection Act 1998 The Principles explained, athttp//www.northtyneside.gov.uk/pls/portal/NTC_PSCM.PSCM_Web.download?p_ID=29520
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Emotion to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin i
Translating feeling to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin in the SunFilm make and cinematography are art forms only decipherable to interpretation in a myriad ways rear in composition, lighting, casting, tv camera angles, shot length, etc. The truly talented imagemaker employs each whoreson available to make a film communicate to the mantrap on different levels, including social and frantic. When a filmmaker chooses to undertake an adaption of a literary classic, the choices become somewhat more limited. In score to be true to the integrity of the piece of books, the artistic team making the allowance must(prenominal) be careful to communicate what is believed was think by the writer. When the literature being adapted is a play originally intended for the demonstrate, the depute is perhaps simplified. Playwrights, unlike novelists, include some leg educational activity and other(a) instructions regarding the visual aspect of the story. In this sense, the filmmaker has a inviolate basis for adapting a play to the big screen.Despite the proviso of stage directions, however, a play is not sincere to adapt to a cinematic form. Plays rely heavily on dialogue to communicate emotion to the proofreader whereas film allows for close visual representation. Filmmakers can explore creative thinking in adaptation in many ways unavailable and impractical in the theater. In order to maximize the emotional impact of a prominent work, the filmmaking team can make use of several simple to that degree effective tools, such as the composition of frames and the variations of the camera shot. In the 1961 film adaptation of Lorraine Hansberrys groundbreaking play A Raisin in the Sun, tell by Daniel Petrie, the filmmakers use these techniques in creative ways to communica... ...stival) starring one(a) of Americas roughly acclaimed actors, Sidney Poitier. Despite the necessity of the brilliant and groundbreaking writing of Hansber ry, ascribe must be given to the filmmakers for translating the stirring emotion of the play into something visually moving. A theater production lacks the creative license for close-up shots of actors faces, and the composition of the stage comes mangle as contrived and stilted at times. Although carefully intend and choreographed, the frame composition of the film is a subtle and creative exploration of the emotional message of this play.Works CitedA Raisin in the Sun. By Lorraine Hansberry. Dir. Lloyd Richards. Perf. Sidney Poitier. Ethel Barrymore Theatre, unfermented York. 11 Mar. 1959.A Raisin in the Sun. Dir. Daniel Petrie. Perf. Sidney Poitier, Claudia McNeil, Ruby Dee and John Fiedler. Columbia Pictures, 1961. Emotion to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin iTranslating Emotion to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin in the SunFilmmaking and cinematography are art forms completely open to interpretation in a my riad ways frame composition, lighting, casting, camera angles, shot length, etc. The truly talented filmmaker employs every tool available to make a film communicate to the viewer on different levels, including social and emotional. When a filmmaker chooses to undertake an adaptation of a literary classic, the choices become somewhat more limited. In order to be true to the integrity of the piece of literature, the artistic team making the adaptation must be careful to communicate what is believed was intended by the writer. When the literature being adapted is a play originally intended for the stage, the task is perhaps simplified. Playwrights, unlike novelists, include some stage direction and other instructions regarding the visual aspect of the story. In this sense, the filmmaker has a strong basis for adapting a play to the big screen.Despite the provision of stage directions, however, a play is not simple to adapt to a cinematic form. Plays rely heavily on dialogue to communi cate emotion to the reader whereas film allows for close visual representation. Filmmakers can explore creativity in adaptation in many ways unavailable and impractical in the theater. In order to maximize the emotional impact of a dramatic work, the filmmaking team can make use of several simple yet effective tools, such as the composition of frames and the variations of the camera shot. In the 1961 film adaptation of Lorraine Hansberrys groundbreaking play A Raisin in the Sun, directed by Daniel Petrie, the filmmakers use these techniques in creative ways to communica... ...stival) starring one of Americas most acclaimed actors, Sidney Poitier. Despite the necessity of the brilliant and groundbreaking writing of Hansberry, credit must be given to the filmmakers for translating the stirring emotion of the play into something visually moving. A theater production lacks the creative license for close-up shots of actors faces, and the composition of the stage comes off as contrived a nd stilted at times. Although carefully planned and choreographed, the frame composition of the film is a subtle and creative exploration of the emotional message of this play.Works CitedA Raisin in the Sun. By Lorraine Hansberry. Dir. Lloyd Richards. Perf. Sidney Poitier. Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York. 11 Mar. 1959.A Raisin in the Sun. Dir. Daniel Petrie. Perf. Sidney Poitier, Claudia McNeil, Ruby Dee and John Fiedler. Columbia Pictures, 1961.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
The Storm Essay -- Essays Papers
The assailThe purpose of this cover is to analyze The Storm by Kate Chopin. In this paper we will look at the setting, atmosphere, plot, character, foreshadowing, symbolism and theme of this tier.Setting and tuneThis story is set on a sultry afternoon in south Louisiana near Biloxi. The body of the story takes confide in Calixtas home during a fierce summer storm. The atmosphere is charged with electrical energy and sexual tension caused by the storm and the unexpected arrival of Alce Laballire who Calixta had not seen very often since her marriage, and never alone.Plot and constitutionThe main character of the story is Calixta a passionate young married woman and beget. Calixta is a flat character because she is shown as a normal wife who has a brief passionate episode and then returns to being a normal wife and mother. We see that Calixta is a normal wife because she is do normal household chores, she is furiously sewing in the beginning of the story and she had hung her husband Bobints, Sunday clothes out to air. Her passionate genius is shown in the lines fear in her liquid blue eyes had given place to a drowsy gleam that unconsciously betrayed a sensuous desire. (29) Her nature is further illustrated in the sentence which began The generous abundance of her passion,(29) this shows us that Calixta was a passionate woman. We then see Calixtas return to her roll of wife and mother because after the storm she was preparing supper when Bobint ...
Welfare Reform: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Legislation Ess
In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity satisfaction Act (PRWORA) passed. This legislation ended the Family Aid with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary helper for Needy Families (TANF). Unlike AFDC, TANF is not an entitlement program. This means that earths ar under no obligation to provide cash assistance to eligible families. Instead the federal government gives block grants to assist poor families with the emphasis on contemptible them from welfare to work or deterring them from applying for welfare in the first place. States are no longer obligated to match federal funds, creating an incentive to elapse their previous portion of the funding for critical programs. Now due to slight funding and no standard rules or regulations in place, thousands of families never finger out that they still qualify for health insurance, childcare or pabulum stamps. ?By eliminating the whole architecture of the old entitlement program, the federal government eliminated a lot of the existing protections for people? (Cahn pg. 1997). A recent study found, 60 percent of former welfare recipients in South Carolina did not inhabit a parent could get transitional Medicaid, and nine states have no outreach efforts to inform parents that they were still entitled to receive childcare assistance aft(prenominal) welfare benefits were closed (Sherman, Amey, Duffield, Ebb, & Weinstein, 1998). By denying or reducing coverage the state creates spare (left over) funds that they are allowed to be used in otherwise programs. Some states even went further using part of its welfare surplus to fund tax cuts for the middle class (Rose 2000).This new popular endeavour is in contrary to the original purpose of programs like TA... ...households (Sherman et al., 1998). This non-profit investigation recommended BibliographyCahn, Naomi, R. 1997. Representing incline outside of explicitly racialized contexts. Michigan Law Review. 9 5 (February)965-1004.Gilens, Martin. 1996. ?Race cryptograph? and white opposition to welfare. American Political Science Review. 90 (September)593-612.Rose, Nancy E. 2000. Scapegoating short(p) Women An Analysis of Welfare Reform. Journal of Economic Issues. 34 (March)143Sherman, Arloc, Cheryl Amey, Barbara Duffield, Nancy Ebb, and Deborah Weinstein. Welfare to What advance(prenominal) Findings on Family Hardship and Well-Being. Washington, D.C. Children?s Defense Fund and National compression for the Homelessness, November 1988.U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1993. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1993. Washington, DC U.S. Government printing process Office.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Mirrors DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Lie in Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.s The Lie Essay -- Kurt Vonne
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.s The Lie - Mirrors take upt LieIn The Lie by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Eli Remenzel is a thirteen-year-old son on his way to The Whitehill Preparatory School with his parents. Little do they be intimate that Eli is keeping a big secret from them he didnt contribute accepted to the school. As the story unfolds Eli finally cracks under the pressure of the inhabit as the headmaster informs his parents that he wasnt accepted at Whitehill. What happens following is a disaster. As I was reading the story I detect a lot of qualities in the incompatible characters that are traits I image in myself. Eli, his mother Sylvia, and his father limit Remenzel all have different characteristics that reflect me. These characteristics are what blend together to make me a unequaled individual. First Ill focus on the similarities between Eli and myself. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. writes, Eli sit down up again, but began to slump almost immediately () hoping to die or disappear. This was w ritten while Eli kept the secret from his parents. As I reread the passage I disliked the way Eli decided to handle his secret. or else of coming right out and telling his parents what the problem was, he treat it, and every mile they drove it became bigger and harder to hold in. Notice the al-Quran slump in the above passage from the story. This was the first thing to tonic water out at me indicating our similarity, because the word creates a vivid picture of myself when I am in similar situations. I felt Elis foiling building, and I realized I handle problems with my family in the same way. My parents neer have the same reaction to a problem, so Im always scared that theyll be angry or disappointed in me. This causes me to do exact... ...tor Rememzel, I accomplished nothing embarrassed myself, yet the bordering time I was unhappy I would repeat my actions over again. I no longer throw temper tantrums, but I do speak before I think and often say and do things that I do not mean. Unlike the other previously mentioned faults, I am quite aware of this one, and I recognized the similarities between Doctor Remenzel and myself right away. In conclusion, I disliked The Lie, because the characters in it exemplify the chastise qualities in myself. Whether its not being honest with my family, being self-absorbed, or my uncontrollable temper, I cannot like characters that possess these traits because I hate these traits deep down myself. Reading about the characters is like looking into a mirror, and like the deed of conveyance says, mirrors dont lie.
The Negro Speaks of Rivers :: Literature Analysis, Langston Hughes
The Negro speaks of Rivers by Langston Hughes is a compelling poem in which Hughes explores non totally his own past, entirely the past of the sick race. As the rivers vary over sequence, the Negros soul does too their waters eternally flow, as the black soul suffers.Analyzing the poems title sets a somber, yet swaggering tone for this poem. The fact that the title does not say I Speak of Rivers, but instead, The Negro Speaks of Rivers (1) shows that he is not only a Negro, but that he is not one specific Negro, but in his first-class honours degree person commentary, he is speaking for all Negroes. However, he is not fitting speaking for any Negroes. Considering the allusions to Mississippi (9) and Abe Lincoln (9) ar not only to Negroes but also to America, confirms that Hughes is talking for all African Americans. This poem is a proclamation on the whole of African American history as it has grown and flourished along the rivers which gave life to these people. The dicti on of antediluvian (3) proves once to a greater extent that Hughes is talking about the history and roots of African Americans. The word antique itself means something that is decrepit, old, and primitive, clearly a word to be used when discussing a history and a journey. This word, which was repeated twice in the passage, emphasizes that there has been a long and difficult wait for equality for blacks. That although they have been around since ancient (3) times, since so long before, they still are fighting for racial equality.Hughes emphasizes his nitty-gritty consistently throughout this poem, weaving in the most important musical note in the middle and end of the poem. He is representing his people. African Americans have waited and been treat by society, and this deepened and weathered their souls over time, just as a river would set about deepened and weathered. Hughes soul, the collective soul of African Americans, has become deep like the rivers (5). This parable spea ks that the rivers are part of the body, and contribute to this immortality that Hughes is so desperate to achieve for his people. Rivers are the earthly symbols of eternity deep, constant, mystifying.The rivers are named in a specific methodicalness in the order of their association with black history. By using some allusions, the context of which Hughes wants to draw attention to is evident. He begins when dawns were young (6), which refers to a time when blacks were used as slaves along the Euphrates in Western Asia, and ends with the Emancipation resolve of Abe Lincoln (9) when slaves were finally freed men.
Monday, March 25, 2019
Da Vincis The Mona Lisa Essay -- Visual Arts Paintings Art Da Vinci J
Da Vincis The Mona LisaWhen I first pillow slip up at the Mona Lisa, I notice the intriguing lookthat is on her face. The font is one that reminds me of a ladythat is neither blessed nor sad, smiling nor frowning. Her skin is in truthsmooth and she has no blemishes, but in like manner she has no eyebrows, whichmakes her look quite strange. At different metres the expression onMona Lisa changes. Sometimes she is giving a cheeky smile and othersshe looks puzzled. This is very strange and almost magical.Also, when looking at the Mona Lisa, I notice that her face is bathedin light. This light is almost heavenly and gives the impression thatshe is angelic. But on the contrary, another thing I notice is thedark clothing and grisly mysterious background ambit. The darkclothing and the veil covering her pig give the impression that shehas been to a funeral or is in mourning. The background setting isvery mysterious. The winding roads, ravenous mountains and the gloomyfog all tote u p to the mystery. It is as if the background is right out ofa fantasy story. another(prenominal) weird thing that the background does is makesthe beholder unsure on which time of day it is in the picture.The painting is Oil on a poplar wood panel. This was Da Vincis mainstyle. It may have helped to urinate the Sfumato technique. The sizing ofthe painting is 77cm x 53cm, this is quite a small size for such agreat painting. Da Vinci may have make this to make it look morelifelike so the beh...
Pride And Prejudice - Point Of View Essay -- essays research papers
Marry For LoveThe point of view of a unfermented usually decides which constitutions we sympathize with. In the new Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Elizabeth Bennett is the focal character, which causes the reader to feel closest to her. The reader whoremaster worry more easily to her feelings and actions, and given that all of Elizabeths opinions on larger issues atomic number 18 known and understood, the reader tends to side with her. By making the accounting from the point of view of Elizabeth, Austen is able to take advantage of the closeness between reader and character to make a political statement nearly the institution of marriage, and thus shows her own feeling that it is a mistake to follow for any other reason besides fill in.&9One representation that she shows her feelings on matrimony is by using Elizabeths voice as her own to approve of some characters decisions about marriage. Elizabeths flattery of sure characters shows Austens approval, and in this case, Elizabeth approves of the marriage between Jane and Bingley. Jane and Bingley show throughout the novel their genuine affection for atomic number 53 a nonher, and Elizabeth observes about Bingleys affection for Jane, "I never saw a more promising inclination. He was developing quite inattentive to other people, and wholly engrossed by her Is not general incivility the very essence of love?" (106). Mrs. Bennett approves of the match in the main on a monetary basis, and exclaims, "Why, he has four or louvre thousand a year, and very likely more. Oh my dear Jane, I am so happy" (260). Elizabeth, however, looks down on her mother for this, and approves of the marriage because she can tell that the two are truly in love with one another. Austen also makes those in love the happiest of all the characters. Jane and Bingley are truly in love, consequently, they are two of the happiest characters in the novel. Jane announces that, "Tis too much By farther too m uch. I do not deserve it. Oh why is not everybody as happy?" (259) and, "I am certainly the most rosy-cheeked creature that ever existed" (262). Jane and Bingleys happiness shows the authors approval of their marriage. Austen uses Elizabeths voice as her own to make the statement that love is the only acceptable reason to splice. Another way that Austen uses Elizabeth to show her feelings on the issue of matrimony is b... ...iven to Wickham by Darcy, they are the ones in the worst pecuniary situation. "They were always moving from place to place in quest of a cheap situation, and always spending more than they ought" (290-291). By using Elizabeth as the character from whose point of view we see the other characters, we are shown by Austen how to feel about each specific situation. In the case of Lydia and Wickham, we are to agree with Elizabeth (and thus Austen) that they have gotten what they deserve for jumping into marriage for the slander reasons. There fore, Austens voice comes through Elizabeth to make the statement that it is foolish to marry for any reason besides love. &9Jane Austen uses Elizabeth as the focal character in the novel Pride and Prejudice to relay a communicate to the reader. Her own voice comes through Elizabeth to make the political statement that it is inexpedient to marry for any reason other than love. Elizabeth (and thus Austen) feels that true happiness cannot be achieved in a marriage unless there is a great deal of love between the partners, and so explains her pursuit for true love, and her blame of marriage between those she knows are not in love.
Sunday, March 24, 2019
Is Vocational Education Working for High-Risk Populations? :: Educational education argumentative Essays
Is vocational Education Working for High-Risk Populations?Any number of vocational direction programs pack been targeted to solve the education and manipulation problems of the nations high- risk of infection populations--the dropout prone, persons with disabilities, educationally and economically disadvantaged persons, and so forth. Some have realized successful outcomes others have not. This publication examines vocational educations role in the success of high-risk populations. reduce the dropout rate is the most common outcome of vocational education for at-risk populations Although in-school holding is a goal of vocational education programs targeted to at-risk youth, it is not the most solid outcome. Data from the evaluation of a 3- year demonstration program funded by the Carl Perkins vocational Education Act reflects a broader perspective on program success. In summarizing the outcomes of the 12 evaluated projects, Hayward and Tallmadge (1995) report that only 4 of the 12 showed a solid reduction in numbers of dropouts. The most successful outcome was the change school performance of program participants. Ten of the 12 projects showed an increase in students grade point averages 7 of the 12 showed a reduction in number of courses failed. In a review of literature regarding the impact of vocational education on student retentiveness, Hill and Bishop (1993) acknowledge that, although there is well-nigh evidence that vocational education programs and approaches have succeeded in keeping students in school, other research showed that vocational education enhanced student retention only when it included other components such as work experience. arrange vocational education programs with programs that address the special conditions that place individuals at risk may provide better outcomes than programs solely devoted to vocational education. The universal Bilingual Vocational Education for Refugee Youth program is one example. table service yout h with limited English proficiency (LEP), this 2-year program provides students with a half-day of vocational training with bilingual assistance and 3 hours per week of life skills training. As part of the vocational component, bilingual members of the business community visit the classroom, mouth with students about work in their fields, and take themto their places of work. In the first year of operation, the LEP dropout rate in the metropolitan area dropped from 35% to 0. In the both counties served by the program, the dropout rate went from 20% to 4% (ibid). Vocational programs raise the employment and earnings of at-risk youth and adults Not all programs achieve the goal of enhancing the employability of at-risk persons,.
Comparison of Electoral Politics :: essays research papers
Comparing the electoral politics of most Western and Eastern European countries is like comparing night and day. While most of Western European countries have a strong political ashes, thriving economy, and a essential governmentmost Eastern European countries have just started this judgement of a democratic nation. Most governments ar corrupt and the political officials are not really trustworthy. The economy is also struggling and there is fermenting with the people. This transition from communism is giving Eastern Europe a dish up of problems. This is the case when comparing the Republic of Ireland and the Republic of Albania. Republic of Ireland The Republic of Ireland has been accept as an independent state since 1921 resulting from a powerful revolutionary motility led by the Sinn Fein (Ourselves Alone), currently the political arm of the provisionary Irish Republican Army. Once very influential in the Irish government the original Sinn Fein was formed in 1905 to pro mote Irish license and led the movement that helped produce a free Irish State. now their political aim remains unchanged-the right of the Irish people as a whole to attain national self-determination(Local Ireland). Wanting to master a United Ireland by whatever means necessary (Local Ireland). politics The Irish government is a parliamentary system with a bicameral legislature. The Executive branch consists of The chief of state, President Mary McAleese (Fianna Fail) was elected in 1997 to a seven year term and is basically a figure-head with no executive powers. The Head of the Government is the rosiness Minister Bertie Ahern (Fianna Fail) nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the chairwoman. The president appoints the Cabinet with previous nominating address by the Prime Minister and approval of the House of Representatives. In elections the president is elected by touristed vote. The president also appoints the Supreme coquet judges on the advice of the government. The Irish Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of the Senate (Seanad Eireann) and the House of Representatives (Dail Eireann). The Senate consists of 60 seats, 49 elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, while the other 11 are nominated by the Prime Minister, Bertie Ahern. The members serve five-year terms. The House of Representatives has 166 seats elected by direct popular vote and in most counties a proportional representation system calls the single transferable vote system (STV) is used. This complicated system is very rare and is only used in the small Mediterrianian Island of Malta.
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