Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Nursing-introduction to personal & professional development Essay

Nursing-introduction to personal & professional development - Essay Example e simple understanding of multiplication and division, percentages, conversion of units and the handling of different ratios and proportions in medication. So, in mastering the skill of numeracy, proper learning framework and teaching is very much required for the nurses so that they can perform not only well in classrooms but also in their practical settings. Adequate guidance and support by practitioners and educators is also required for the new nurses. In United States a shocking number of patients die every year just because of severe medications errors on the part of the nurses. Institute of Medicine, a generally cited estimate, places thousands of deaths as the result of calculations and medications errors and concludes these errors the fourth leading cause of causalities in United States. Numbers are very important in medicine and drug therapy. The term numeracy skills mean the utilization and recognition of numeric data or numbers accurately and clearly. This data may be used on forms and in performing other numeric calculations. So, we can say that the use of numeric data in a proper way is very required for a professional nurse. Furthermore, it is also important to use this data effectively and competently which is only possible if a nurse learns the basic skills of numeracy. Remember, the success of any nurse always depends on the professionalism associated with the use of numeric data. As already mentioned, that nurses always require proper understanding of the numeric data. Some basic courses or entry level lessons in home nursing always include the ability to understand and learn medication calculations plus numeric data related to various tests. These calculations may be in fractions, numbers and percentages and considered as the building blocks of the career of any nurse. So, here the question arises why numeric data is so important? Actually various calculations are always required for the proper assessment of the patient. For example, if

Monday, October 28, 2019

Redemption and survival Essay Example for Free

Redemption and survival Essay The novel by Victor Hugo entitled Les Miserables is story that looks into the life of John Valjean and his exploits towards awakening, redemption and survival. It depicts his transformation from a galley prisoner towards a new man. It conveys the different decisions and actions committed by a man towards choosing his path in life. Likewise, there are other characters that intertwine and provide relevant impact in Jean Valjean’s life and growth as an individual. Moreover, the setting of the story outlines the significance of societal factors that has been influential in the creation of decisions and actions that transpired in the duration of the story. Analyzing the different themes presented by Hugo in this story, one significant element in present in the idea is the element of morals, values, and perceptions. Looking at it, John Valjean is convicted because of stealing bread and was sent to the galleys. Upon his escape, he became aware of the prejudice and bias that society has given him. In here, Hugo was able to showcase the transformation of Jean Valjean from a criminal into an honest man with the help of the Bishop Myriel. Hugo mentions this in the novel by saying that â€Å"Jean Valjean, my brother, you no longer belong to evil, but to good. It is your soul I am buying for you. I withdraw it from dark thoughts and from the spirit of perdition, and I give it to God! (p. 106). Another significant element that makes the book worth reading is its ability to showcase that amidst the presence of darkness and suffering, redemption do happens and it creates and avenues for change to occur. This was evident in the novel as different books presented these ideas in a different manner. For example, the suffering of Fantine and Cosette to survive was alleviated by Jean Valjean’s adoption of Cosette. Likewise, the suffering of Jean Valjean for acceptance and worth was compensated by becoming the Mayor M. Madeleine and serving the needs of people. The ability of the story to present the realities and harshness of life is also an interesting part to consider. Hugo was able to outline the significant areas that surround ones mind as he synthesizes them and provides the development for the characters. This was stated when Hugo said that â€Å"The generation now having its passing turn on earth is not compelled to abridge it for the generations, its equals after all, that will have their turn afterward . . . Hence, at certain periods, a deep chill on the magnanimous vanguard of the human race. (p. 1242). Exploring on the idea of change, I would have to agree with the idea of Hugo that it happens because of ones ability to decide for their own. Whatever the outcome may be, it is their relevant that individuals use it for their own growth. This is the process for one to cultivate the totality of humanity and what it’s supposed to be. As Hugo argues, â€Å"from one end to the other; in its whole and in its details, whatever the omissions, the exceptions, or the faults is the march from evil to good, from injustice to justice, from the false to the true, from night to day, from appetite to conscience, from rottenness to life, from brutality to duty, from Hell to Heaven, from nothingness to God† (p. 1242). Lastly, I would have to agree with the notion of Hugo that time and love can transcend betrayal and deception. This has been present and evident in various situations experienced by Jean Valjean. One significant example is the quote which says â€Å"by which the writing reversed on the blotter was corrected by the mirror and presented its original form; and Jean Valjean had beneath his eyes the letter Cosette had written Marius the evening before It was simple and devastating† (p. 1152). Though this situation did happen, Jean Valjean began to accept Marius as his own which came to a point of even rescuing him from the conflict and struggle. This is one manifestation of how the overall idea of love can help overcome and provide new avenues for change. By reading this book, I came to appreciate the situations happening around. It gave me the idea that our decisions can affect what our lives would be in the future. Likewise, it is through love, compassion and forgiveness that individuals, groups, and societies can overcome the hurdles and challenges brought about by pain, deception, deceit and violence. Overall, the book offers various areas that open up the mind of readers of the possibilities and realities that are happening. Hugo was able to convey a mixture of feelings that cultivate a total experience once reading the novel. In here, he combines the familiar facets of politics, religion, romance, and social situations that make the process of understanding significant and timeless in its own right. To conclude, the themes and issues presented in the book can be summarized by Hugo’s quote which says â€Å"The history of men is reflected in the history of cloacae† (p. 1462). In here, it just shows how one can grow and pursue life depending on what we take inside. It means that the actions, values, ideals, and perceptions that we accommodate and acquire dictate what we are and what we can become. This influences our actions and decisions in life as we find new ways to live according to the standards and changes happening.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Sponsorship Today Essay -- Business and Management Studies

Sponsorship Today Introduction to sponsorship Sponsorship is an important marketing tool for many organisations & is an important element of the promotional mix. Sponsorship involves the support of an event, activity, person, organisation or product by an unrelated organisation that may exchange money, services or goods in return for the association that the sponsorship provides. Sponsors choose events that attract their target market to enhance their brand reputation & awareness. A method of shaping brand identity, sponsorship can improve company image, raise company profile & generate awareness of company values. An integral part of marketing strategy, sponsorship is useable either as a single marketing activity or alongside other marketing tools such as advertising, public relations & promotion in order to leverage the sponsorship & increase the impact. Sponsorship originated in sports in the 1960’s and has been the fastest growing form of marketing spreading to the arts, media, charities, education & broadcasting as a result of globalisation, technological advances & recognition of the value & revenue that can be earnt from sponsorship. A universal medium, few sports or arts events are now without sponsors looking to broaden their competitive advantage. Some forward thinking sponsors now plan long term, using grass roots sponsorship to form a bond with their target market early in their development as a consumer. Previously used only as a PR tool, sponsorship it is now a separate component of the promotional mix, playing an important role in the whole of the marketing mix. Sponsorship consultants & advertising agencies now offer sponsorship as a separate marketing tool and research agencies provide profiles of audiences, evaluate and measure success. The growth of the sponsorship industry has been largely at the expense of other forms of advertising, such as media advertising & due to the restrictions on advertising products such as alcohol and tobacco. Sponsorship of charities & other worthy concerns has also grown as part of 'cause-related marketing' programmes. Types of Sponsorship The UK sponsorship industry can be divided into four main sectors: sports, broadcast and social and environmental and its sponsors pay large sums of money to be associated with events that have worldwide coverage. Spo... ... Sudharshan - Mastering Marketing Financial Times - The Essence of Services Marketing Adrian Payne - Value Based Marketing Doyle - Marketing Plans Malcom Macdonald - Marketing Principles and Practice Adcock, Bradfield, Halborg, Ross - Marketing Communications Websites - www.knowthis.com - www.cim.co.uk - www.dti.gov.uk - www.mintel.co.uk - www.wmrc.com - worldmarketsresearch centre - www.magrathesolutions.com - www.marketingguru.com - www.marketignteacher.com - www.meansbusiness.com - www.mediamixweb.com - www.dma.co.uk - www.idm.co.uk - www.etstrategicmarketing.com - www.marketingprofs.com - www.netmba.com - www.mtsu.com - www.banat.com.au - www.jackmartin.com - www.sponsorship.com - www.vodafone.co.uk - www.variantrandomstate.org - www.uksponsoship.com - www.standardlife.com - www.tinthepark.com - www.themanager.corg - www.sportlink.au.co.uk - www.sohotheatre.co.uk - www.publicity.org - www.nike.com - www.news.bbc.co.uk - www.netmba.com - www.stellaartois.com - www.sportssponsorship.co.uk - www.marketingvox.xom

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Congo River In Heart of Darkness Essay

The Meaning of the Congo River for Marlow, the journey on the Congo River is one of the most difficult and ominous journeys he will ever take. The fact that it takes him around and not completely into the jungle is significant of Marlow’s psychological journey as well. He never really goes on land but watches the shore from the outside. The only time he goes on shore he finds a wasteland. For Marlow the jungle of the Congo is representative of evil that man is capable of. In Heart of Darkness, it seems that the further Marlow travels into the jungle, the deeper he looks into himself. All this time is spent on the Congo River as he looks from the outside. This is symbolic as he is looking at his soul from the outside but never really sees himself until he goes on land to get Kurtz. When he arrives on land is symbolic of when he looks the deepest into himself. He goes to find Kurtz on his deathbed and is given he choice to take over for him as a god among an African tribe. Marlow is faced with the ultimate choice between good and evil. For a moment it is uncertain what choice Marlow will make. But, unlike Kurtz, Marlow picks the good over evil, as he rescues Kurtz back to the steamer. The fact that Marlow sailed along the Congo River, around the jungle, and not actually into the jungle is an important symbol also. Marlow never walks the path that Kurtz did to self-destruction. He went around the jungle to avoid getting captured by evil. Kurtz was a decent Englishman until he gave into the desires of his heart of darkness. Kurtz spent all his time in the jungle and eventually forgot all of his self-control, manners, and upbringing. He truly looked in the deepest part of himself and found that his evil desires would reign. This is symbolic because he was deep inside the jungle. In this respect Conrad uses to men to show the reader both the good and bad of humankind. He shows the true evil and good that man is capable of If proper restraints had been there would Kurtz have done things differently? The fact that no one was around to keep Kurtz in check helped him succeed in becoming capable of the immense evil he became. Marlow had his shipmates there to keep him responsible. When he left the steamboat there wasn’t anyone to restrain Marlow. He was face to face with himself and his human desires, but as he looked at Kurtz and what the evil had done to him he saw the consequences of choosing evil. If Marlow hadn’t seen the consequences would he have acted differently? In the beginning of the novel, Marlow talks of things as if they are happening far away from him and not actually happening close by which represents that he is on the outside looking in. He also talks about a fog that settles over the river. This fog represents a distortion of what lies ahead. As he makes his decisions based on what he thinks is right but really he has no idea of what will happen to him or his crew. As the novel progresses the reader will start to understand all of these themes and symbols that the Congo River represents. It represents the shedding of layers of the soul and taking a look into the desires of the heart. By the end it seams as though the reader has taken a look into their own soul to find out what ultimately dominates them. Will they find themselves to be a Marlow; a person who exercises their capacity for good, or will they find themselves to be a Kurtz; a person capable of an immense heart of darkness?

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Pharmaceutical Marketing

Pharmaceutical Marketing Merck â€Å"Merck has gone beyond developing and selling prescription pharmaceuticals. It formed joint ventures in 1989 with Johnson & Johnson to sell over the-counter pharmaceuticals; in 1991 with DuPont to expand basic research, and in 2000 with Scherigng-Plough to develop and market new prescriptions medicines. In 1997, Merck and Rhone-Poulenc S. A. (now Sanofi-Aventis S. A. ) combined animal health and poultry genetics business to form Merial Limited, a fully integrated animal health company.Finally, Merck purchased Medco, a mail –order pharmaceutical distributor, in 2003, and Sirna Therapeutics in 2006† (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 43-44). â€Å"For branding strategies to be successful and brand value to be created, consumers must be convinced there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service category. Brand differences often related to attributes or benefits of the product itself . . Merck has lead (its) product catego ries for decades, due in part to continual innovation† (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 243).Merck has donated $100 million or more to charities in a year (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 632). Mission Statements Ex. Japan Both pharmaceutical and biotech companies are starting to make partnership a core competency (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 52). Intro: Michael Dawson, author of â€Å"The Consumer Trap,† states that the business of marketing, a trillion-dollar –a-year industry, is a social, economical, environmental, and unfriendly cost on Americans today as it â€Å"continues to soak up economic and environmental resources and dominate the personal lives of citizens† (Dawson, 2005, p. ). Dawson argues that corporate America is fueled by a continuous marketing race that manipulates people’s perceptions and actions of goods into thinking the economy is out to serve one’s pleasures and happiness, when in all reality, is only out to serve the demand of busin ess today (Dawson, 2005, p. 1). â€Å"It is critical that the U. S. government recognizes that intelligently focused nutrition-related efforts are important in helping lead Americans of all ages to lead healthier lifestyles.Marketing Nutrition shows how simple solutions can save lives. â€Å"–Congressman Timothy V. Johnson, United States House of Representatives (Wansink, 2007, p. 1). There are enormous economic dividends for health care providers, public health institutions, and commercial food companies if we are successful in doing this. â€Å"–Dr. David Mela, Expertise Group Leader, Unilever Health Institute(Wansink, 2007, p. 1). Marketing = A mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers (Grauer, 1981, p. ). Pharmaceutical marketing is an â€Å"element of an information continuum, where research concepts are transformed into practical therapeutic tools and where information is progressively layered and ma de more useful to the health care system† (Levy, 1994, p. 1). Provides an informed choice of carefully characterized agents (Levy, 1994, p. 1). marketing assists physicians in matching drug therapy to individual patient needs (Levy, 1994, p. 1).Pharmaceutical marketing is presently the most organized and comprehensive information system for updating physicians about the availability, safety, efficacy, hazards, and techniques of using medicines (Levy, 1994, p. 1). pharmaceutical marketing strategies can negatively affect both- the end consumers or the patients and the health care profession (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Also, the advertising strategies included in the marketing plan of any pharmaceutical company is not ‘direct to consumer' (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. ). Any pharmaceutical marketing strategy targets the health care professionals or the Doctors who in turn prescribe the drugs to the patients (e nd consumers) liable to pay for the products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). However, a few countries (till date two countries- New Zealand and United States) allow Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTC advertising) for pharmaceutical products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010. Pharmaceutical & Drug Manufacturer Resources.Retrieved from: http://www. pharmaceutical-drug-manufacturers. com/articles/pharmaceutical-market-trends-2010. html The global pharmaceutical is forecasted to make a significant growth of about 4 – 6%, exceeding $975 billion, with global pharmaceutical market sales expecting to grow at a 4 – 7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2013, based upon global macroeconomy as well the â€Å"changing combination of innovative and mature products apart from the rising influence of healthcare access and funding on market demand† (Pharmaceutical Market Trend s 2010, p. ). pharmaceutical sales are growing at a fast rate in India, China, Malaysia, South Korea and Indonesia due to the rising disposable income, several health insurance schemes (that ensures the sales of branded drugs), and intense competition among top pharmaceutical companies in the region (that has boosted the availability of low cost drugs). India – 3rd Largest Producer of Pharmaceuticals Across the World- is already a US$ 8. 2 Billion pharmaceutical market.The Indian pharmaceutical industry is further expected to grow by 10% in the year 2010. (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). The development of infrastructure and rapidly changing regulations in the Middle East are being seen as the cause of its growth. Presently South Africa, Saudi Arabia and Israel dominate the region's pharmaceutical industry due to their better infrastructure and regulatory environment. However, The Middle East pharma market depends on imported pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutics.Th e governments of countries in this region are taking measures to raise their domestic production through heavy investments in the pharmaceutical industry (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical Drugs Trends of fastest expected growth consist of anti-Diabetic Drugs and those for cardiovascular diseases, due to the changes in demographics and lifestyle with anti-hypertensives drugs will dominate the global cardiovascular market with a market share of nearly 50% (Pharmaceutical Market Trends 2010, p. 1). Strategy:The pharmaceutical companies traditionally adopt four major marketing strategies for promoting their products: Giving drugs as free samples to doctors/ Gifts that hold the company logo or details of one or multiple drugs, providing details of their products through journal articles or opinion leaders; and Sponsoring continuing medical education (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). Pharmaceutical representatives, also popularly known as medical representatives, are the major pharma marketing strategy for marketing drugs directly to the physicians.Typically, the expense of this sales force of any pharmaceutical company comprises anything ranging from 15-20% of annual product revenues (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). â€Å"Marketing Nutrition offers a ‘win-win' proposition for all concerned. Insightful companies, health professionals, and policy makers can lead the way . . . in helping people eat better and enjoy food more. â€Å"–Dr. James O. Hill, Director of Human Nutrition, University of Colorado Medical School (Wansink, 2007, p. ). Take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time (Gra uer, 1981, p. 1). A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies.Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers (Grauer, 1981, p. 1). The costs of pharmaceutical marketing are substantial, but they are typical of high-technology industries that must communicate important and complex information to sophisticated users. These costs are offset by savings resulting from proper use of medicines and from lower drug costs owing to price competition (Levy, 1994, p. 1). oint to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and find comfort in the fact that this agency is tasked with regulating drug advertising. â€Å"only† 8% of advertisements are in violation of regulations. at least one of the 11 advertisements in the April issue of the ARCHIVES is likely to be misleadin g and, thus, provide potentially harmful information. In fact, the FDA, according to David A. Kessler, MD, commissioner, spends most of its time developing the package insert and not, as asserted by Levy, preapproving advertising. According to Kessler, â€Å"Except under very special circumstances, the agency does not eview or approve advertising and promotional materials before their dissemination by a drug firm† Furthermore, Kessler states that an â€Å"†¦ enormous potential exists for misleading adver ¬ tisements to reach the physician and influence prescribing decisions. † (Shaughnessy, Slawson, ; Bennett, 1994, p. 1). Gifts: Giving drugs as free samples to doctors/ Gifts that hold the company logo or details of one or multiple drugs, A study was done in 1995 to gauge the outcome of a patient’s perception of pharmacy marketing regarding physician’s accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical industry.The objective of this study was to â€Å"examin e patient perceptions of professional appropriateness and the potential impact on health care of physician acceptance of gifts from the pharmaceutical industry,† via a random telephone suvey of 649 adjults living in the state of Kentucky. Through the random sampling, the outcome of the survey was that Patient awareness of officeuse gifts (eg, pens, notepads) and personal gifts to physicians from the pharmaceutical industry, patient exposure to office-use gifts, and attitudes toward physician acceptance of both office-use and personal gifts. Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). Eightytwo percent of the respondents were aware that physicians received office-use gifts, while 32% were aware that physicians received personal gifts. Seventy-five percent reported receiving free samples of medication from their physicians. Compared with office-use gifts, more respondents believed that personal gifts to physicians have a negative effect on both health care cost (42% vs 26%) and quali ty (23% vs 13%). After controlling for demographic variables, as well as awareness and exposure to physician gifts, individuals with at least a high school education were 2. times as likely to believe that personal gifts have a negative effect on the cost of health care and 2. 3 times as likely to believe that personal gifts would have a negative effect on the quality of health care. (Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). Conclusions These results suggest that the public is generally uninformed about personal gifts from pharmaceutical companies to physicians. If public perception regarding the objectivity of the medical profession is to serve as a guide, these findings suggest a reevaluation may be in order for guidelines regarding physician acceptance of gifts from the harmaceutical industry (Mainous, Hueston, ; Rich, 1995, p. 1). The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, and the Pharmaceuticals Manufacturers' Association have also published guidelines on perks to physicians from the drug industry. The bottom line is that all these guidelines are voluntary, and physicians have continued to vote â€Å"with their feet. † (Shaughnessy, Slawson, & Bennett, 1994, p. 1). controversial 1962 FDA amendments.Just before 1962, congress studied and concluded that because of patent protection, heavy promotion by the drug companies, consumer ignorance, and minimal incentives for physicians to be concerned with cost, drugs of dubious quality and unnecessarily high expense were being prescribed by physicians, criticisms that sound remarkably familiar even today. Up to that point, the FDA had only required â€Å"proof of safety,† which dated back to the origins of the modern drug era and the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Shaughnessy, Slawson, & Bennett, 1994, p. 1).Discussions about the influence of pharmaceutical promotion on physicians often focus on gifts and payments of relatively large economi c value. This focus is also evident in ethics guidelines addressing pharmaceutical promotion among many professional medical societies. 1 The underlying assumption is that smaller gifts are unlikely to exert influence on prescribing decisions. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. 1). In contrast, a substantial body of marketing and psychology literature suggests that even trivial items can exert influence irrespective of economic value.For example, adding a small gift such as personalized mailing labels to a solicitation for donations has been shown to significantly increase contributions. 2 In pharmaceutical promotion, small gifts are often tethered to branding efforts, as items such as pens and coffee mugs display logos. Aside from the intrinsic value of promotional items, branded materials strengthen brand awareness and build brand equity through a variety of largely unconscious but powerful mechanisms. 3 Nonverbal information about the brand, such as symbols or logos, is o ften more influential than verbal cues. Stronger brands have a memory encoding and storage advantage over unknown brands,5 which facilitates the formation of strong positive associations with the brand. Strong branded products are more often in a â€Å"top-of-mind† set of alternatives for consumers to consider. 6 Strong brand awareness provides a justifiable reason for choosing a particular brand. 7-8 This research suggests that small branded promotional items should increase favorable attitudes for the brand being promoted.We are unaware of studies that test these effects in a clinical context with health professionals, but many physicians, because they are medical experts, believe they are not susceptible to these influences. 5, 9-10 In one survey, just 8% of physicians believed they were susceptible to influence by marketing items such as branded pens, whereas 31% of patients felt these items could influence physicians. 9 The guidelines of the American Medical Association regarding gifts to physicians from industry reflect this belief of lack of susceptibility by permitting â€Å"gifts of minimal value. â€Å"1 (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. ). The study used a randomized experimental design. Participants were third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Penn) and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (Miami). We selected these institutions because of their differing policies regarding interactions between trainees and pharmaceutical company representatives. The University of Pennsylvania has restrictive policies in place that prohibit most gifts, meals, and samples while Miami continues to permit such marketing practices. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. 1). 007-2008. Study participants were assigned to a control or primed condition based on their day of enrollment. Participants assigned to the â€Å"primed† condition were exposed to Lipitor (atorvastatin) br anded promotional items immediately prior to completing a computer-based study instrument. These exposures included Lipitor logos on a clipboard (used when signing in to the study room) and notepaper (used to provide participants with their study identification number). Participants assigned to the control condition completed the same procedures but with a plain (nonbranded) clipboard and notepaper.Randomization was conducted by day in order to avoid contamination of conditions. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Participants were told they were enrolling in a study about clinical decision making under varying conditions (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Our study was designed to measure the influence of exposure to branded promotional items on relative attitudes toward 2 lipid-lowering statins. We examined differences in attitudes toward Lipitor and Zocor (simvastatin) in our exposed (Lipitor promotional items) and control groups.Lipitor is among the most p romoted brand-name statins in the United States while simvastatin is available generically and considered to be nearly equally effective. The study outcomes included measures of implicit and self-reported (ie, explicit) attitudes. (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Implicit attitudes were evaluated with the Implicit Association Test,11-15 a widely used tool in marketing and psychology research that is thought to be resistant to social desirability bias among research participants.Initial applications of the IAT, for example, demonstrated the persistence of racial and gender stereotypes and prejudices, even in the face of strong conscious beliefs that such attitudes do not exist and strong social norms that dictate they should not exist. 16-17 Results from the IAT are a better predictor of intergroup discrimination (eg, biased behavior against people of other races/ethnicities, gender, and sexual orientation based on existing attitudes and stereotypes) compared with osten sibly similar self-report measures. 13 In recent years, the use of the IAT has been expanded to research focused on branding and marketing. 8-19 Further details regarding application and validity of the IAT have been published elsewhere13-15; a demonstration can be found at the Project Implicit Web site (https://implicit. harvard. edu/implicit). (Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 2009, p. 1). Explicit attitudes were assessed by self-report. Following the IAT, participants were asked to compare Lipitor and Zocor in 5 dimensions (superiority, preference, efficacy, safety, and convenience) a follow-up anonymous Internet-based survey that assessed their attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing.The purpose was to measure differences in attitudes among students at the 2 schools given the differing institutional policies as a possible explanatory factor(Grande, Frosch, Perkins, & Kahn, 200 Then there is the pharmaceutical industry's holy grail of marketing — the relationship between their sales representatives and medical doctors. To maintain this relationship, often called â€Å"detailing,† pharmaceutical companies spend a whopping $8,290 per doctor.The average family doctor receives 28 visits each week from drug reps, who provide free samples, explain new findings from company-sponsored drug trials, and demonstrate the latest innovation in their company’s medical devices. Some doctors, reporters and public health advocates have long decried the pharmaceutical industry's seemingly endless attempts to buy goodwill among medical professionals. But insidious marketing campaigns seeking to rebrand medical conditions as lifestyle choices, and the patients who suffer from them as consumers, have received little scrutiny. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). 9, p. ). providing details of their products through journal articles or opinion leaders; Worse, the trend is seriously undermining the regulatory authority of the FDA. It's not surprising that profit-driven, cu tting-edge marketing techniques have outstripped the government agency established to guide them. What is surprising is that public health advocates haven't made pharmaceutical rebranding and off-label promotions of drugs and medical devices major issues. In December, the advocacy group Consumers Union sent a letter (PDF) to the FDA requesting tighter DTC advertising regulations on medical devices. Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). The December 2007 issues of the women’s fashion magazines Allure and Harper's Bazaar both featured multi-page spreads on non-surgical cosmetic procedures, including the array of injectable wrinkle fillers. The articles outlined the pros and cons of each filler, evaluating injection pain, cost per injection (most run between $500 and $800 per shot), and how long each lasts (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). Dermatologist and anti-aging cream entrepreneur Dr. Patricia Wexler is featured prominently in the Bazaar story.Her remarks about each injectable reflect the marketing language of the brands themselves. When she is discussing Sculptra ®, for instance, she describes how the product acts as â€Å"a trellis on which the collagen can grow† — a line marketers use to describe how the device works. She also repeatedly suggests what are off-label, unregulated product applications, such as using injectable fillers in the eye area, in the temples, in the jawline, on the cheekbones, and in the fine lines surrounding the mouth. Dr. Wexler's injectable filler romotions are especially credible among the target audience. Wexler regularly discusses non-invasive, anti-aging procedures on the â€Å"Oprah Winfrey Show,† the â€Å"Today Show,† and â€Å"Good Morning America,† and in the pages of Vogue and Marie Claire. The big pharma companies that make the injectable fillers likely dream of doctors touting their products and suggesting off-label uses for them in popular women's magazines. As the saying goes, they couldn't buy suc h good press — but they probably did. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). Dr. David J.Triggle, a pharmacologist at the State University of New York at Buffalo who has written about drug advertising, says a doctor’s endorsement should be scrupulously honest (Saul, 2008, p. 2). Dr. Robert Jarvik, known for the artificial heart he pioneered more than a quarter-century ago. began appearing in television ads two years ago for the Pfizer cholesterol drug Lipitor (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraph The ads have depicted him, among other outdoorsy pursuits, rowing a one-man racing shell swiftly across a mountain lake. When diet and exercise aren’t enough, adding Lipitor significantly lowers cholesterol,† Dr. Jarvik says in the ad. Celebrity advertising endorsements are nothing new, of course. But the Lipitor campaign is a rare instance of a well-known doctor’s endorsing a drug in advertising — and it has helped rekindle a smoldering debate over whether it is appropriate to aim ads for prescription drugs directly at consumers. A Congressional committee, concerned that the Lipitor ads could be misleading, has said it wants to interview Dr. Jarvik about his role as the drug’s pitchman.Some of the questions may involve his credentials. Even though Dr. Jarvik holds a medical degree, for example, he is not a cardiologist and is not licensed to practice medicine. So what, critics ask, qualifies him to recommend Lipitor on television — even if, as he says in some of the ads, he takes the drug himself? (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraphThe House Committee on Energy and Commerce is looking into when and why Dr. Jarvik began taking Lipitor and whether the advertisements give the public a false impression, according to John D.Dingell, the Michigan Democrat who is the committee’s chairman. â€Å"It seems that Pfizer’s No. 1 priority is to sell lots of Lipitor, by whatever means necessary, including misleading the American people,† Mr. Dingell said. Lipitor, the world’s single best-selling drug, is Pfizer’s biggest product, generating sales of $12. 7 billion last year. But as it has come under competition from cheaper generic alternatives, Pfizer has used the Jarvik campaign, introduced in early 2006, to help protect its Lipitor franchise. Wherever the Congressional inquiry leads, the controversy risks damaging Dr.Jarvik’s credibility and undermining his real medical mission. The Jarvik campaign was rolled out the same year that Zocor, Lipitor’s chief competitor, became available as a generic drug that is widely considered about as effective as Lipitor but is sold at a fraction of the cost. (Saul, 2008, p. 1). Skip to next paragraph Criticism of consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals flared as an issue back in 2004, when Merck withdrew Vioxx, a heavily advertised painkiller, after a clinical trial showed that it sharply increased the risk of heart attack s and strokes.The pharmaceutical industry adopted voluntary guidelines the next year suggesting that companies delay advertising new products for an unspecified period after they first reach the market (Saul, 2008, p. 1). In early January, the U. S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce began investigating celebrity endorsements in television ads for brand-name drugs. These direct-to-consumer (DTC) ads have been controversial since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) loosened the rules governing pharmaceutical marketing in 1997.Before Lipitor made headlines, there was Viagra. Pfizer's â€Å"Viva Viagra! † campaign was criticized by the FDA and organizations including the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, who said the DTC ads encouraged recreational use of the erectile dysfunction drug. One print ad suggested that Viagra be used to â€Å"celebrate† events such as the Super Bowl or New Year's Eve. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). While troubling, DTC ads represent only 14 percent of pharmaceutical companies' marketing budgets.By the time a 30-second drug commercial airs, the company has conducted months of segmentation studies, held dozens of meetings to define the â€Å"communication target† (typically a woman, usually a mother, and of a certain income), and spent millions of dollars to develop the drug's brand and its market. This strategic marketing, which represents the remaining 86 percent of drug promotion expenses, should receive at least as much attention from regulators and lawmakers as DTC ads. (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1).While DTC ads seek to change patients' behavior, pharmaceutical companies are more interested in changing doctors' behavior. Drug marketers work hard to persuade doctors to prescribe their branded drug over generics and other competitors, and to change other medical practices that limit company profits. To cultivate medical professionals, drug companies may retain a doctor as a spokesperson, position friendly medical â€Å"thought -leaders† in the media, or organize free events at posh resorts and expensive hotels to â€Å"educate† doctors about a new disease state (think Restless Leg Syndrome) or their latest drug.In 2000, the biggest 10 pharmaceutical companies spent $1. 9 billion on promotional events alone (Ebeling, 2008, p. 1). For example, the FDA found that Eli Lilly's television broadcast advertisement for Strattera (atomoxetine) was false or misleading because it inadequately communicated the indication for the drug (attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder) by means of competing visuals, graphics, and music presented concurrently. Similarly, serious risk disclosures were minimized for Strattera, the FDA said, by the distracting visuals and graphics (e. . , erratic camera movement, quick scene changes, and visual changes in point of view). In another case, the FDA said Pfizer's print advertisement for Zoloft (sertraline) was false or misleading because it omitted important informa tion relating to the risk of suicidality in patients, a risk stated on the product's label at the time the advertisement ran. (Donohue, Cevasco, & Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Drugs that are advertised to consumers are predominantly new drugs used to treat chronic conditions.Ten of the top 20 drugs, as ranked by advertising spending, were introduced in 2000 or later. Advertising campaigns generally begin within a year after the introduction of a pharmaceutical product, which raises questions about the extent to which advertising increases the use of drugs with unknown safety profiles. At least one pharmaceutical manufacturer (Bristol-Myers Squibb) recently announced a voluntary moratorium on direct-to-consumer advertising for drugs in the first year after FDA approval.And PhRMA, the industry trade group, has recommended that manufacturers delay such campaigns for new drugs until after health professionals have been sufficiently educated, although no details have been provided on how long a period was deemed necessary. 20 Finally, in a recent study of drug safety, the Institute of Medicine recommended that the FDA restrict advertising for newer prescription drugs. 8 Our data show that a mandatory waiting period on advertising for new drugs would represent a dramatic departure from current industry practices.For example, the FDA found that Eli Lilly's television broadcast advertisement for Strattera (atomoxetine) was false or misleading because it inadequately communicated the indication for the drug (attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder) by means of competing visuals, graphics, and music presented concurrently. Similarly, serious risk disclosures were minimized for Strattera, the FDA said, by the distracting visuals and graphics (e. g. , erratic camera movement, quick scene changes, and visual changes in point of view).In another case, the FDA said Pfizer's print advertisement for Zoloft (sertraline) was false or misleading because it omitted important in formation relating to the risk of suicidality in patients, a risk stated on the product's label at the time the advertisement ran. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs on television. Such advertising has been criticized for encouraging inappropriate use of medications and driving up drug spending. ,2 Concern that such advertising may lead to increased use of expensive medications was amplified by the introduction of a prescription-drug benefit in Medicare in 2006 (Part D). Studies of the effect of advertising on prescribing practices have shown that such advertising increases classwide sales, helps to avert underuse of medicines to treat chronic conditions, and leads to some overuse of prescription drugs. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Direct-to-consumer advertising has also been controversial in light of postmarketing revelations regarding problems with drug safety.Specifically, clinical trials that are requ ired for drug approval are typically not designed to detect rare but significant adverse effects, and contemporary methods of postmarketing surveillance often fail to connect adverse events that have a high rate of background prevalence with the use of particular drugs. After the market withdrawal of Vioxx (rofecoxib), a drug heavily promoted to consumers,6 critics called for the FDA to place limits on direct-to-consumer advertising, particularly for new drugs,7 a view that was reiterated in a recent report by the Institute of Medicine on the safety of medicines. (Donohue, Cevasco, ; Rosenthal, 2007, p. 1). Sponsoring continuing medical education describes the influence of sponsoring on the results, protocol and quality of drugs studies (Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). The authors conclude that pharmaceutical companies exploit a wide variety of possibilities of manipulating study results. Apart from financing the study, financial links to the authors, such as payme nts for lectures, may tend to make the results of the study more favourable for the company.Not only the results themselves, but also their interpretation, are significantly more often in accordance with the wishes of the sponsor. (Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). In some publications, the authors detected evidence that sponsors from the pharmaceutical industry had influenced study protocols. For example, placebos were more frequently used in drug studies than was the case with independently financed studies. On the other hand, some favourable effects were linked to financial support from the pharmaceutical industry.The methodological quality of studies with industrial support tended to be better than with independent drug studies(Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 2010, p. 1). Most physicians must complete accredited continuing medical education (CME) programs to maintain their medical licenses, hospital privileges, and specialty board certifications. Data from t he Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) show that CME is a $2 billion per year business in the United States that earns less than half its revenue from physician learners themselves. CME is increasingly underwritten by commercial sponsors — primarily manufacturers of drugs, biologic therapies, or medical devices — that spend more than $1 billion per year in educational grants and other funding to cover more than half the costs for CME activities (Morris ; Taitsman, 2009, p. 1). In recent years, a number of studies have shown that clinical drug trials financed by pharmaceutical companies yield favorable results for company products more often than independent trials do. Moreover, pharmaceutical companies have been found to influence drug trials in various ways. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Published drug trials that were financed by pharmaceutical companies, or whose authors declared a financial conflict of interest, were found to yield favorable results for the drug manufacturer more frequently than independently financed trials whose authors had no such conflicts. The results were also interpreted favorably more often than in independently financed trials. Furthermore, there was evidence that pharmaceutical companies influenced study protocols in a way that was favorable to themselves.The methodological quality of trials financed by pharmaceutical companies was not found to be any worse than that of trials financed in other ways. Conclusion: Published drug trials that are financed by pharmaceutical companies may present a distorted picture. This cannot be explained by any difference in methodological quality between such trials and trials financed in other ways. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Clinical drug trials funded by pharmaceutical companies yield favorable results for the sponsor’s products more often than independent trials do.This has been demonstrated by a number of studies in recent years Various ways have been described in which pharmaceutical concerns exert influence on the protocol and conduct of drug trials, as well as on the interpretation and publication of their results. This systematic review showed widespread conflicts of interest in the shape of financial connections between scientists, academic institutions, and the pharmaceutical industry. Around one quarter of academic staff and two thirds of academic institutions had financial relationships with industry.Analysis of 8 review articles embracing a total of 1140 original articles (including randomized controlled trials [RCT], economic analyses, and retrospective cohort studies) revealed a statistically significant association between funding by biomedical companies and conclusions favorable to the pharmaceutical industry (summarized odds ratio [OR] 3. 6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2. 6–4. 9). Industry financing was also connected with l imitations of publication rights and constraints on access to trial data. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). In the second review, a systematic analysis of 30 publications, Lexchin et al. showed that drug trials financed by pharmaceutical companies are less likely to be published, but that those published more frequently yield positive results for the sponsors’ products than do independently funded studies (8). The quality of the methods employed (analyzed in 13 publications) in trials financed by pharmaceutical companies was not inferior to that in studies with other sources of funding. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The authors of the present systematic review set out to assess whether recently published studies reveal a connection between financing of drug trials by pharmaceutical companies and results favorable to these companies’ products. Part 1 investigates whether and, if so, how the type of fu nding affects study protocol and quality. Part 2 identifies and depicts the aspects of clinical drug trials that can be influenced by financial support from the pharmaceutical industry. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The publications included were primarily studies performed with the expressed goal of comparing clinical trials funded by pharmaceutical companies with clinical trials that had not received financial support from such companies, e. g. , with regard to the results or conclusions. These studies were accompanied by a number of publications that investigated the consequences of financing of a study by pharmaceutical companies.These included, for example, articles in which information from the files of the US licensing authority (Food and Drug Administration, FDA) was compared with data from publications in medical journals, and case studies on individual substances. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Conne ction between type of funding and results of drug trials Twenty-six of the 57 publications analyzed sought to ascertain whether the results and/or conclusions of drug trials depended on the type of funding or on financial conflicts of interest on the part of the authors (eTable). Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Altogether, 23 of these 26 studies came to the conclusion that there was a positive correlation between the financing of a study by pharmaceutical companies and/or conflicts of interest on the part of the authors and results or conclusions that were favorable to the sponsor. The statistical significance of this finding was investigated in 22 cases and confirmed in 20. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. ). In 4 cases it was apparent that the findings were interpreted favorably towards the pharmaceutical concern that had funded the study, independent of the results (e5–e8). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-R emy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Another study investigated the connection between the conclusions and the source of financial support in clinical trials that had appeared in 5 influential medical journals over a period of 20 years (e10).Most trials yielded positive results for the drug in question regardless of the funding source, but this study also revealed a trend over the course of time towards more positive findings in industrially financed trials than in trials supported by non-profit organizations (e10). The third study compared the results (but not the interpretations or conclusions) of clinical trials of drugs used in pain management, some of them long available as generics (e9). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. ). Five of the 57 studies analyzed investigated whether funding by pharmaceutical companies affected the design of the study protocol (Table 1 gif ppt). The use of placebos was shown to be significantly more common in RCTs of drugs f or psoriasis that were financed by such companies than in those with funding from other sources (e12). Moreover, several studies of treatment for premature ejaculation that were sponsored by a pharmaceutical company were found to have disregarded the relevant objective endpoint (e13).In an investigation of inhaled corticosteroids, significant differences in the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) between the probands and the control group occurred only half as often when the study had been funded by the manufacturers (see also Part 2). The differences could be attributed wholly to the study design. For example, studies financed by pharmaceutical companies used lower dosages. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1).The pharmaceutical company concerned investigated the marketing effect of the study, finding that participating physicians did indeed prescribe rofecoxib significantly more often than non-participants in its first 6 months on the market. (S chott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). The results of clinical drug trials that are funded by pharmaceutical companies or whose authors have financial conflicts of interest are favorable to the products of the sponsoring company far more frequently than studies whose funding comes from other sources.Furthermore, interpretation of the data in the conclusions of industrially financed trials more often favors the sponsor. This was shown by the present systematic review and analysis of investigations, published between 1 November 2002 and 16 December 2009, into various diseases, study types (e. g. , RCTs and observational studies), and drugs. The results confirm the conclusions of 2 systematic reviews, both published in 2003, conducted with similar intent (7, 8).The principle of equipoise, i. e. , uncertainty which of the alternative approaches benefits the patient most, forms the ethical foundation of clinical studies in which the probands receive various tre atments (14). This principle seems to be violated in many studies funded by pharmaceutical companies. (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). There are numerous reasons why studies financed by pharmaceutical manufacturers more often yield positive results.Four investigations found evidence that pharmaceutical companies influence the study protocol to their advantage (e12–e14, e19), e. g. , by more frequent use of placebos in control groups than in independently funded studies (e12). Although the responsible authorities sometimes demand placebo-controlled trials as a condition of licensing, they also request active controls (15). Further factors leading to higher frequency of results favorable to the sponsor in trials funded by pharmaceutical companies are described in Part 2 of this review. Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Trials financed by pharmaceutical concerns displayed no signs of poorer methodological qualit y. On the contrary, two studies showed superior quality (e16, e17). It must be taken into account, however, that some factors that serve to assess the quality of the instruments used in a study were not determined, among them the clinical relevance of the target parameters. In oncology, for instance, there are currently major defects in the protocols of industrially sponsored clinical trials, e. . , deficiencies in the definition of patient-relevant endpoints and in the selection of suitable substances for the control arm of RCTs (16–19). Moreover, clinical trials in oncology are often discontinued after preliminary analysis (20), with the result that only a short time after the licensing of a drug its additional benefits and the safety of new substances can frequently no longer be evaluated, preventing any benefit/risk analysis (21). (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy, Ludwig, ; Lieb, 2011, p. 1). Conclusion:Wansink argues that the true challenge in marketing nutrition li es in leveraging new tools of consumer psychology (which he specifically demonstrates) and by applying lessons from other products' failures and successes. The same tools and insights that have helped make less nutritious products popular also offer the best opportunity to reintroduce a nutritious lifestyle. The key problem with marketing nutrition remains, after all, marketing. (Wansink, 2007, p. 1). New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i. e. , patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance (Grauer, 1981, p. ). We encourage family physicians interested in providing the best care for their patients to become educated in the advertising techniques used by the pharmaceutical industry. (Shaughnessy, Slawson, & Bennett, 1994, p. 1). | | | | | | | | | | | new challenges as well as opportunities for increasing profitability. If the pharmaceutical companies want to improve their Return-On-Investment (ROI), they have to adopt new communicat ion technologies (digital media) along with their conventional sales force of medical representatives.They really need to adopt this multi channel marketing strategies for the following reasons: The concept of blockbuster drugs is dying out for big pharmaceutical companies where 2-3 drugs were good enough to pay back the whole investment for a larger number of manufactured drugs. Now the limited prospective for blockbuster drugs (thanks to low investment on R&D and patent expiry) makes it essential to focus on more specialized drugs sold in lower volumes. And when there is low volume products, sales driven marketing strategy (with high cost of sales force) is not feasible.As far as small pharma companies are concerned, they already have small sales force. However, with the use of digital media, having a lower investment cost (both for the company and its targeted customer) they can easily get return on investment. Customer behavior (doctors behavior) is rapidly changing. Doctors, wh o are getting more and more busy with increasing patients, can be hardly seen by the medical representatives. They are more inclined towards Internet for obtaining relevant information.It is the time for pharmaceutical companies to build their marketing strategies around this digital media. Website marketing, online marketing, blogs, social media, forums, chat rooms and any other such media is an influential means to present the company's products and offers through opinion leaders (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1). The right marketing strategy for any pharmaceutical company would be to build on proven strategic marketing principles, along with a focus on changing customer behavior.Use of digital media through Internet marketing plan is the best marketing strategy that can provide the basis for a changed business model. However, there should be some planning for using digital media for marketing too. It should be a multi channel marketing strategy but sho uld identify the target audience. Every digital media used for all people can not be called the right marketing strategy. The focus should be on the high value customer segment for pharmaceutical products (Need of New Pharmaceutical Marketing Strategies, 2010, p. 1).

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures essays

Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures essays Imagine Japan in the earlier part of its existence, before it was as we know it now. What it unified under one ruler or was in made up of many smaller societies? How did people have kinship ties with one another? How did they live? While you contemplate these things others have already extensively researched them, written about them, and taught the history to other people. One such individual, William Wayne Farris, wrote a book called Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures (1998) which attempts to address some parts of Japanese history that are still under debate as well as recent archaeological finding and what they prove. First he discusses Yamatai which is a 3rd century realm that was ruled over by Queen Himiko. Next, he discusses the Korean connection, which refers to the connections that Japanese and Koreans had during this time period (Did the Japanese conquer southern Korea or did the Koreans conquer Japan. Thirdly, he discusses the capitals in Japan, how they were influen ced by the Chinese methods of architecture, and how they were able to build such large cities. Lastly, Farris addresses wooden tablets (a new written resource) and how they effected what we thought about certain parts of Japanese politics and history. Before the book is discussed any further, we will take a look at the author so we can see how credible he is, how much research he did for this book, and how well he knows the material. William Wayne Farris is a professor in Japanese history at the University of Tennessee. He not only teaches Japanese history but also a variety of specialized classes for graduate students. He is a world-renowned expert on pre-1600 population, disease, agriculture, samurai, and historical archaeology in Japan. He received his PhD at Harvard University in 1981 and his field specialties are pre-modern Japanese social and economic history. He has received recieved research grants from the Japan Foundatio...

Monday, October 21, 2019

An Event Planning Company Management Essay Example

An Event Planning Company Management Essay Example An Event Planning Company Management Essay An Event Planning Company Management Essay The S M Events is an event planning company specialising in corporate customers.A S M Events will offer two types of services, retreat preparation services every bit good as merchandise launch event planning.A The retreat preparation services will be either leading development preparation or teaming accomplishments training.A For both types of retreats, S M Events can take attention of the planning of the event, every bit good as really hosting the preparation through the usage of one of S M Event s strategic concern spouses. The corporate market for event planning is steady and profitable.A For some big companies, economic downswings mean cuts in preparation. This is, nevertheless, A merely the instance for unforesightful companies.A The benchmark companies may pare down the work force during a downswing, but they do non cut financess for training.A They recognize that puting in human resources is ever a good investment.A S M Events intends to gain nicely from this.A Additionally, even in economic downswings, companies still have merchandise launches and will still necessitate person to form these events.A In short, the demand for corporate event planning/hosting services seldom diminishes, it is a steadily increasing demand that S M Events will capitalise on. S M Events is an equal chance concern doing its expertness and its merchandises available to assist its clients plan their ain events. Party Packs ( complete kits for their event ) , make hosting a party a catch, right down to the refreshments. The event planning package brings synergistic event planning every bit near as their personal computing machine. Through these and other low-cost merchandises and services, S M Events aims to be the figure one resource for any event. Introduction: S M Events will be located in Little India ; will offer event planning for corporations. S M Events will be specialising in training/leadership retreats, squad edifice accomplishment retreats and merchandise launch events.A S M Events will be located in office infinite near Kerbau Road in Little India. S M Events staff of two, with legion contract sellers, plans events, writes event-planning merchandises, and trains country pupils in the art of event planning. S M Events is invested in the community it resides in. S M Events is, in portion, the reply to demands of the societal universe, on the working household, heavily-burdened office, out-of-town concern, or particular juncture in demand of particular acknowledgment. As a concern, we understand the demands of public and private organisations. As parents and household members, we understand the demands of puting particular clip apart from other events in our lives. S M Events strives to carry through these ends. Start-Up Summary: Through careful planning on the portion of the laminitiss, the starts up costs for S M Events are minimum. It began as a home-based concern with small overhead, and it continues to demand fewer spendings of financess as a service-based concern. The start-up cost investing financess were assets saved from anterior net incomes by the proprietors who did event planning on a parttime footing before set uping themselves as a concern. It is the want of the laminitiss to stay a debt-free constitution. However, acknowledging that in world non all variables are governable, outside funding is a feasible option. Both laminitiss own places and have a perfect recognition evaluation. Start-up Start-up Requirements Start-up Expenses Legal $ 200 Stationery etc. $ 300 Booklets $ 185 Advisers $ 200 Insurance $ 145 Rent $ 150 Research and Development $ 0 Expensed Equipment $ 1,985 Other $ 200 Entire Start-up Expenses $ 3,365 Start-up Assetss Needed Cash Balance on Get downing Date $ 2,300 Start-up Inventory $ 0 Other Current Assetss $ 0 Entire Current Assets $ 2,300 Long-run Assetss $ 0 Entire Assetss $ 2,300 Entire Requirements $ 5,665 Funding Investing Siddharth A ; Arjun $ 3,400 Other $ 265 Entire Investing $ 3,665 Current Liabilitiess Histories Collectible $ 0 Current Borrowing $ 2,000 Other Current Liabilitiess $ 0 Current Liabilitiess $ 2,000 Long-run Liabilitiess $ 0 Entire Liabilitiess $ 2,000 Loss at Start-up ( $ 3,365 ) Entire Capital $ 300 Entire Capital and Liabilitiess $ 2,300 Gross saless Forecast By get downing on a smaller graduated table, S M Events has the foresight to turn at a rapid gait to maintain up with demand. We wish to keep a steady rate of gross revenues growing ; nevertheless, we understand that gross revenues of merchandises and services will change in different months. Gross saless Forecast Gross saless Forecast Gross saless FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 Private $ 206,170 $ 276,099 $ 299,002 Public $ 113,185 $ 178,490 $ 193,000 Other $ 33,794 $ 40,081 $ 62,777 Entire Gross saless $ 353,149 $ 494,670 $ 554,779 Direct Cost of Gross saless FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 Private $ 312 $ 330 $ 355 Public $ 210 $ 246 $ 346 Other $ 132 $ 151 $ 189 Subtotal Direct Cost of Gross saless $ 654 $ 727 $ 890 Important Premises Tax rates are noted for information. We carry no loan load that would be affected by these rates. What hits S M Events the hardest ( but non about are bad as other service concerns ) , is the revenue enhancement rate of 23.5 % , which is about 1 one-fourth of the entire gross revenues. As S M Events continues to turn, these Numberss will be mention instead than influence. General Assumptions FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 Plan Month 1 2 3 Current Interest Rate 8.92 % 8.92 % 8.92 % Long-run Interest Rate 7.99 % 7.99 % 7.99 % Tax Rate 24.04 % 23.50 % 24.04 % Gross saless on Credit % 60.00 % 60.00 % 60.00 % Other 0 0 0 Projected Net income and Loss Leading the industry in event planning requires the usage of the resources available at the lowest cost. As noted in the tabular array, we spend less money on operating expense than other event contrivers with an outside office or office infinite in their ain installation. This savings allows us to market in originative ways and pass financess on enlargement into other countries when the clip is right. Pro Forma Profit and Loss FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 Gross saless $ 353,149 $ 494,670 $ 554,779 Direct Costss of Goods $ 654 $ 727 $ 890 Other $ 196 $ 203 $ 221 Cost of Goods Sold $ 850 $ 930 $ 1,111 Gross Margin $ 352,299 $ 493,740 $ 553,668 Gross Margin % 99.76 % 99.81 % 99.80 % Expenses: Payroll $ 56,044 $ 63,310 $ 66,560 Gross saless and Marketing and Other Expenses $ 146,013 $ 5,700 $ 6,119 Depreciation $ 110 $ 102 $ 96 Leased Equipment $ 0 $ 0 $ 0 Utilities $ 516 $ 0 $ 0 Insurance $ 258 $ 0 $ 0 Rent $ 1,440 $ 0 $ 0 Payroll Taxs $ 6,725 $ 7,597 $ 7,987 Other $ 0 $ 0 $ 0 Entire Operating Expenses $ 211,106 $ 76,709 $ 80,762 Net income Before Interest and Taxes $ 141,193 $ 417,031 $ 472,906 Interest Expense $ 235 $ 334 $ 430 Taxs Incurred $ 33,345 $ 97,924 $ 113,591 Net Net income $ 107,614 $ 318,773 $ 358,885 Net Profit/Sales 30.47 % 64.44 % 64.69 %

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Equilibrium Constant of Electrochemical Cell Reaction

Equilibrium Constant of Electrochemical Cell Reaction The equilibrium constant of an electrochemical cells redox reaction can be calculated using the Nernst equation and the relationship between standard cell potential and free energy. This example problem shows how to find the equilibrium constant of a cells redox reaction. Problem The following two half-reactions are used to form an electrochemical cell:Oxidation:SO2(g) 2 H20(â„“) → SO4-(aq) 4 H(aq) 2 e-  Ã‚  E °ox -0.20 VReduction:Cr2O72-(aq) 14 H(aq) 6 e- → 2 Cr3(aq) 7 H2O(â„“)  Ã‚  E °red 1.33 VWhat is the equilibrium constant of the combined cell reaction at 25 C? Solution Step 1: Combine and balance the two half-reactions. The oxidation half-reaction produces 2 electrons and the reduction half-reaction needs 6 electrons. To balance the charge, the oxidation reaction must be multiplied by a factor of 3.3 SO2(g) 6 H20(â„“) → 3 SO4-(aq) 12 H(aq) 6 e- Cr2O72-(aq) 14 H(aq) 6 e- → 2 Cr3(aq) 7 H2O(â„“)3 SO2(g) Cr2O72-(aq) 2 H(aq) → 3 SO4-(aq) 2 Cr3(aq) H2O(â„“)By balancing the equation, we now know the total number of electrons exchanged in the reaction. This reaction exchanged six electrons. Step 2: Calculate the cell potential.This electrochemical cell EMF example problem shows how to calculate cell potential of a cell from standard reduction potentials.**E °cell E °ox E °redE °cell -0.20 V 1.33 VE °cell 1.13 VStep 3: Find the equilibrium constant, K.When a reaction is at equilibrium, the change in free energy is equal to zero. The change in free energy of an electrochemical cell is related to the cell potential of the equation:ΔG -nFEcellwhereΔG is the free energy of the reactionn is the number of moles of electrons exchanged in the reactionF is Faradays constant (96484.56 C/mol)E is the cell potential. The cell potential and free energy example shows how to calculate free energy of a redox reaction.If ΔG 0:, solve for Ecell0 -nFEcellEcell 0 VThis means, at equilibrium, the potential of the cell is zero. The reaction progresses forward and backward at the same rate, meaning there is no net electron flow. With no electron flow, there is no current and the potential is equal to zero.Now there is enough information known to use the Nernst equation to find the equilibrium constant.The Nernst equation is:Ecell E °cell - (RT/nF) x log10QwhereEcell is the cell potentialE °cell refers to standard cell potentialR is the gas constant (8.3145 J/mol ·K)T is the absolute temperaturen is the number of moles of electrons transferred by the cells reactionF is Faradays constant (96484.56 C/mol)Q is the reaction quotient**The Nernst equation example problem shows how to use the Nernst equation to calculate cell potential of a non-standard cell.**At equilibrium, the reaction quotient Q i s the equilibrium constant, K. This makes the equation:Ecell E °cell - (RT/nF) x log10KFrom above, we know the following:Ecell 0 VE °cell 1.13 VR 8.3145 J/mol ·KT 25 degC 298.15 KF 96484.56 C/moln 6 (six electrons are transferred in the reaction)Solve for K:0 1.13 V - [(8.3145 J/mol ·K x 298.15 K)/(6 x 96484.56 C/mol)]log10K-1.13 V - (0.004 V)log10Klog10K 282.5K 10282.5K 10282.5 100.5 x 10282K 3.16 x 10282Answer:The equilibrium constant of the cells redox reaction is 3.16 x 10282.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Movie Mississippi Burning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Movie Mississippi Burning - Essay Example One agent-Ward-is young but has risen in the hierarchy by rigidly following protocol. The other-Anderson-is a former small town Mississippi sheriff who joined the FBI late in life. This movie is not factual but is instead a story suggested by the facts ("Mississippi Burning": The Movie, 1988). The movie shows the FBI as ultimately using the illegal vigilante terror tactics of the Ku Klux Klan against the Klan itself. Also, in the movie, the FBI was given all the credit for carrying the civil rights banner, with no credit acknowledged for Dr. Martin Luther King's moral policy of non-violence and the organized coalitions of blacks and whites under his banner. One reviewer noted that The campaign to find the missing workers was directed by J. Edgar Hoover, and it was known that he despised blacks. In fact, he was more involved in an effort to prove that Dr. King was a communist. The movie offered stereotypical portraits of black citizens and white terrorists, and the FBI agents ultimately used the same tactics as the Klan to solve the crime, with one death as the result. Any act committed within the jurisdiction of the United States that is dangerous to human life and becomes a violation of the criminal laws of a state or of the United States is considered domestic terrorism (U.S. Code, 2006). It therefore can be said that the tactics used by both sides constituted domestic terrorism. Confederacy in the South continued to be rampant in 1964, even though the Civil War had ended 100 years earlier, and many southerners still refused to accept efforts to unite the country. Mississippians, and especially small town Mississippians, were convinced that blacks had no rights and anyone involved with them was a "nigger lover" or a communist. Douglas Linder's detailed account of the "Mississippi Burning" trial-U.S. vs. Cecil Price et al-held in 1967 (2007) shows a photograph of defendants Sheriff Cecil Price and Sheriff Lawrence Rainey smirking and chewing tobacco that immediately brings to mind "southern red necks," and makes it easy to accept the Ku Klux Klan stereotype of ignorant racists. In Mississippi in 1964, there was no federal police force, and protection was the responsibility of the local police. When three civil rights workers__two white and one black-disappeared in east central Mississippi in June 1964, the Mississippi Highway Safety Patrol and the FBI were no tified, and a search took place (Linder, 2002). It was discovered that the three men had been stopped by the local police and taken to jail. The following day, they were released, but they were not seen again. When the federal agents, who had been called in to the situation, were unable to find the young men after 24 hours, a full kidnap investigation was initiated by the Justice Department under the "Lindbergh Law." The younger agent, Ward, called in many workers to help find the boys. While the movie showed the Ku Klux Klan as responsible for the deaths of the three students, in actuality it could be said , according to Linder, "In spirit, everyone belonged to the Klan" (2002, p. 6). With the help of one

Friday, October 18, 2019

Benefits of the Ctrip Idea in the Future Life Case Study - 35

Benefits of the Ctrip Idea in the Future Life - Case Study Example Decision making will be easier for the traveling agencies due to the classifications of travelers (Mohinder, 2009). Â  This classification will be beneficial to the agencies in that they will be able to make decisions based on the ability of their clients and consequently treat a client fairly and thus increasing their customer base (David & Nancy, 2012). Â  This exhibit according to the case idea demonstrates the customer base beginning from 2007 when a new CEO is hired. Considering the vertical axis as the customer base in hundreds of thousands and the horizontal axis as the years moving forward, it illustrates that in the year 2007 the customer base was at 600,000. The figure increases to 800,000 customers in 2011 resulting from the acquisition of 16 percent by Tencent Company. This figure is predicted to rise in 2017 due to the recommendations made and the figure is projected to be at one million customers. This means the customer base in the projected future life will increase accordingly (Mohinder, 2009). Â  Considering exhibit 5, the case idea recommends that the increase in the customer base through the methods stated earlier will lead to increase in the profits due to increase in the travel activities above.

Comparison of the Concepts of Education as the Process of Learning by Essay

Comparison of the Concepts of Education as the Process of Learning by Frederick Douglass and Malcolm X - Essay Example In today’s society, education, as a concept, has evolved to be taken synonymously with schooling (Lear 2). However, while it is undeniable that formal schooling is an integral aspect of education today, understanding and promoting education within this limited context leaves students unable to benefit from its full potential; hindering their full development as individuals. Education is a process of knowing. While formal schooling can undoubtedly contribute to this process, it is but one of many means to achieve an education. Looking at Frederick Douglass and Malcolm X’s experiences, one can illustrate how education can also be achieved through self-study. Douglass, for example, was deprived of formal education as a result of his status as a slave. He laments in his autobiography, â€Å"education and slavery were incompatible with each other† because, in the words of his master, it â€Å"would forever unfit him to be a slave† (53, 49). Malcolm X, although not necessarily deprived of formal schooling, did not finish beyond the eighth grade because of a disheartening talk with one of his professors (Malcolm X 36-37). Thus, he notes, â€Å"[his] alma mater was books, a good library† (203). Nonetheless, both men educated themselves. However, although it is possible to educate oneself without formal schooling, self-education is not a simple process. Douglass himself writes he is â€Å"conscious of the difficulty of learning without a teacher† (50). In this respect, what allowed both Malcolm X and Douglass to succeed in their self-studies is the fact that they are determined and dedicated in their own education. Malcolm X, for example, tirelessly began teaching himself how to read by copying pages of the dictionary by hand, learning the words and reciting them aloud. Since learning how to read, he notes, â€Å"from then until I left that prison, in every free moment I had, if I was not reading in the library, I was reading in my bunk.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Please reword the answers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Please reword the answers - Essay Example She impersonates a legitimate user to avoid detection. This makes the users think that the IP address for the printer is associated with the MAC (Media Access Control) address of Beatrice. Consequently, the software for the printer thinks that each of the users printing a document has Beatrice’s MAC address. As a matter of fact, Beatrice (as a man in the middle) passively eavesdrops on all the documents being sent by users to the printer. Describe a data structure for keeping track of all open TCP connections for a machine. The data structure should support e_ciently adding and deleting connections and searching by host, source port, and destination port. For the data structure, one needs to create a record for each connection of available TCP (transmission control protocol) connection and store all records in a double linked list Q. the double linked list ought to support insertions and deletions within constant time; assuming that a link to the record to be deleted/inserted is provided. In order to search competently for a TCP connection record by either using host or source port or destination port, create three search structures such as red-black trees or hash tables that store items of the type (x; y), in which x is the search key and y is a link to a connection record in Q. An intruder can get an upper hand by stealthily watching legitimate users for a week because by doing so he can determine what is normal and or accepted behaviors for each user (Shannon, p. 25-32). Consequently, he can try to mimic or imitate the noted behaviors of which minimize the probability of raising any intrusion alarms when he attacks the victim computer. All in all, the intruder would find it relatively easy to attack such a machine by watching and analyzing user’s behavior. Describe a modi_cation to the random port scan, as described in the previous

Critical Thinking Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Critical Thinking - Assignment Example However, other students who could apply with lower scores successfully were considered and admitted to the college. The Supreme Court condemned the evident rise of such discrimination and regarded it as unconstitutional. During the year 1996, California State endorsed to be the first in eradication of the affirmative actions that was mostly involved in most public schools. The banning of the affirmative actions was done with inclusive of the colleges. The above fact commands critical thinking per Moore work. In support to the inclusion of critical thinking in the article by Moore, vividly highlights that many of the admission done in colleges would consider the applicants race rather than grades. Moore represents the Supreme Court verdict on racial discrimination issue as one of the major factors that should be put into consideration among the rest in the domain of admissions. The justice ruling Supreme Court in the United States strong talks of the banning of the affirmative actions in the schools. Racial discrimination being one of the issues discussed; some of the colleges in Texas has engaged the law enforcement particularly with race issues, Moore, (2005). The University of Syracuse case filed under the US Supreme Court, the Councilor was judged with the affirmative action. If a right judgment of the law has to take the correct order, a collection of fear for integration pace to the factor may seem to be full of hardship. When the racial discrimination takes over the campuses in the US, it will leave the States of Color. Now, the only prime debate that has already kicked off in the US Supreme Court is all about the Michigan University regarding the advantages that people have been relatively getting. The affirmative actions in the schools and colleges has got to a safer side according to the article’s author by demonstrating that, issues like racial discrimination are being observed and discussed by the US Supreme Court for better

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Please reword the answers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Please reword the answers - Essay Example She impersonates a legitimate user to avoid detection. This makes the users think that the IP address for the printer is associated with the MAC (Media Access Control) address of Beatrice. Consequently, the software for the printer thinks that each of the users printing a document has Beatrice’s MAC address. As a matter of fact, Beatrice (as a man in the middle) passively eavesdrops on all the documents being sent by users to the printer. Describe a data structure for keeping track of all open TCP connections for a machine. The data structure should support e_ciently adding and deleting connections and searching by host, source port, and destination port. For the data structure, one needs to create a record for each connection of available TCP (transmission control protocol) connection and store all records in a double linked list Q. the double linked list ought to support insertions and deletions within constant time; assuming that a link to the record to be deleted/inserted is provided. In order to search competently for a TCP connection record by either using host or source port or destination port, create three search structures such as red-black trees or hash tables that store items of the type (x; y), in which x is the search key and y is a link to a connection record in Q. An intruder can get an upper hand by stealthily watching legitimate users for a week because by doing so he can determine what is normal and or accepted behaviors for each user (Shannon, p. 25-32). Consequently, he can try to mimic or imitate the noted behaviors of which minimize the probability of raising any intrusion alarms when he attacks the victim computer. All in all, the intruder would find it relatively easy to attack such a machine by watching and analyzing user’s behavior. Describe a modi_cation to the random port scan, as described in the previous

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What is the Investment case for floating of offshore wind turbines Essay

What is the Investment case for floating of offshore wind turbines - Essay Example Future climate alteration and connected effects will change from place to place all over the world, according to the IPCC report. The impacts of a growth in worldwide temperature comprise of an increase in the levels of sea and a variation in the quantity and pattern of precipitation, as well as a possible growth of subtropical deserts..One among the many proposed policy responses to global warming is the investment of offshore wind power, according to the 2013 Report of the European Wind Energy Association. Compared to the environmental effects of conventional energy sources, the environmental wind power effect is minor, a bit high than the environmental effect of hydro-water on a life-cycle basis. Different from electricity resulting from fossil fuels and nuclear power firms, wind power consumes no fuel and, emits no air pollution in operation. What is the Role of Fukushima Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Generating power? The Fukushima event played a significant role in this techno logy of floating offshore by setting up a sub-station, which was the only one of that type in operation. A development to tap the wind power about 20 kilometer off the coast of Fukushima, the region where the March 2011 nuclear disaster took place, started producing power based on operation, according to the report published on Bloomberg.com(http://www.bloomberg.com/news/print/2013-11-11/fukushima-floating-offshore-wind-turbine-starts-generating-power.html) The project that was funded by the government is a sign of Japans interest to develop the technology which has not yet been proved for floating the wind powers off the coast and its aim to change quake-ravaged Fukushima into an outstanding centre for energy production.†Fukushima is gaining ground in...Offshore wind ability is growing fast, from 4 GW (gigawatts) in 2011 to 175 GW by 2035, its development being underpinned by administration support," according to the International Energy Agency's 2012 World Energy Outlook rep ort (pages 226-227). This leads us to the question; what is the Investment case for floating of offshore wind turbines and for onshore wind turbines? Introduction This paper is meant to investigate the investment case for floating offshore wind turbines and for onshore wind turbines. Throughout the paper I will discuss various modes of offshore and onshore wind technology and how various nations across the globe have adapted that source of energy .Also throughout the paper I will discuss the various companies in the business of production of wind turbines and their rate of investment in the technology. What is driving the development and deployment of the technology? Global warming is the increase rise in the regular temperature of Earth's ambiance and oceans ever since the late 19th century and its predictable continuance. The Bloomberg report helps explain that a traditional floating offshore wind turbine tower that is constructed upward from the seafloor results to be too expensive to install in waters deeper than 50 meters, and this is a big issue for Japan since a continental shelf varying from 50 to 200 meters deep surrounds its coast.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Psychology and Care Plan Essay Example for Free

Psychology and Care Plan Essay Questions 1 – Be able to assess the development needs of children or young people and repare a development plan. 1.1 – Explain factors that need to be taken into account when assessing development. * Progress * Improvement * Behaviours * Look at goals within care plan are they on track? * What activities they are partaking in and how well are they dealing with them. * Whether they are interested, compliant and accepting or not. 1.2 – Assess a child or young person’s development in following areas :- physical, communication, intellectual/ cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural and moral. A) Please see attached sheets of evidence (Daily session record and behaviour tick sheet) 1.3 – Explain the selection of assessment methods used. A) These methods are used to monitor mood, behaviour, what the young person has been doing during that session also the date and time of the session, so we can monitor if something is a regular occurrence on or at a certain time of day (looking for patterns). 1.4 – Develop a plan to meet the needs of a child or young person in the work setting. A) Please see attached care plan 1 – Be able to promote the development of children or young people 2.5 – Implement the development plan for a child or young person according to own Role and responsibilities, taking into account that development is holistic and interconnected. * Monitor the care plan on a daily basis to be aware of any changes and implement if necessary. * If I notice certain areas of the care plan are not working efficiently to meet the needs of the young person and could be improved upon it is my responsibility to report this back to the correct senior member of staff, so they can review and update if necessary. * When working with the young person if I notice any changes/ unusual behaviours to report to senior. 2.6 – Evaluate and revise the development plan in light of implementation. A) In reading the care plan since it was last reviewed I would advise it does need an update in regards of :- * The YP’s getting up in the morning as states that he is not good at getting up, but now is a lot better and tends to get straight up and for a shower with no issues and with little prompting. * The care plan states what the YP likes for breakfast but does not state that he also likes to make it himself. * Again stating the YP is getting better at going out and likes to go out, but doesn’t state specific preferences as he particularly likes to go to the park on the swings. * In the care plan I have noticed it doesn’t make aware that the YP finds his PECS strip useful at times instead of verbal communication and also avoids confusion with the YP * All others areas of the care plan remain unchanged at this time but will continue to review and monitor, so that any changes can be implemented asap to enable improvement and progress for the YP. 2.3- Explain the importance of a person centred and inclusive approach and give examples of how this is implemented in own work. * To meet the INDIVIDUAL needs of the Young person to ensure they are gaining all the positive effects and influences around them and developing at their individual pace. * Individual care plans of which the Young person has input * Following and adhering to the care plans * Residential meetings – asking the young people if they are happy with surroundings, if not what they would like to change. * Giving the YP’s choices of meals, activities and clothing to show individuality and personality 2.4– Observation 2.5 – Encourage children or young people to actively participate in decisions affecting their lives and the services they receive according to their age and abilities. * Residential meetings * Asking likes and dislikes * Giving choices around personal hygiene/ dietary needs * Giving choice in social activities * Choice of clothing for personal identity * Supporting in finance matters, giving them a choice what to spend their personal finances on. * Given as much choice and inclusion in decisions to meet individual needs 2 – Be able to respond to inappropriate behaviour 3.7 – Explain the features of an environment or service that promotes the development of children and young people. A) Within the service to be aware through care plans of the trigger points of YP’s that initiate the inappropriate behaviour B) To be aware through the care plan how best to respond to the individual to defuse inappropriate behaviour C) Use positive reinforcement and praise when individual responds well and behaviour improves, hopefully enabling young person to develop and recognise themselves that the inappropriate behaviour is not rewarded or acceptable, hopefully making the occurrence of inappropriate behaviour less often. 3.8 – observation 3 – Understand how working practices can impact on the development of children and young people. 4.9 – Explain how own working practice can affect children and young people’s development. * My different approaches and attitude can affect the YP’s mood, behaviour etc as if I appear abrupt or aggressive in manner it may cause the YP to become aggressive themselves or non-cooperative and act out. * If I do not follow care plan this may have an effect on the YP as I am not meeting their specific needs which may cause agitation as they may not be getting what they need. * If I follow the care plans and have a happy positive attitude towards the YP it is more likely they will be content. 4.10 – Explain how institutions, agencies and services can affect children and young people’s development. A) They can have a positive effect on development by setting guidelines and standards to follow that are suitable for the individuals needs and ensuring reviews are done regularly to keep up to date with any changes and ensuring all the services etc are working with one another with a clear exchange of information to be able to work towards a common goal for the best outcome for the individuals development. B) If the above did not happen it would have a negative effect on the individual as no one could assure them that the quality of standards and individual needs are being met and this would have a negative impact on their development as structure and communication is key. 4 – Be able to support children and young people’s positive behaviour 5.11 – observation 5.12 – Evaluate different approaches to supporting positive behaviour. A) When using different approaches such as verbally praising and positive actions to reinforce positive behaviour, this encourages positive responses and outcomes enabling them to complete set tasks and activities within their care plan. 5 – Be Able to support children and young people experiencing transitions 6.13 – Explain how to support children and young people experiencing different types of transitions. A) Being aware of the YP’s fears and concerns of the transition by communicating with them. B) Explaining the reason to the YP of why transition taking place C) By providing initial support and on-going if required D) Accompany them during transition E) Make others aware of the concerns/ support needs the YP may have F) On-going discussions with the YP to allow them to express any fears or concerns with an on-going transition.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Debate On Pornography Media Essay

The Debate On Pornography Media Essay The circumstances surrounding the debate on pornography cross ethical, social, religious, psychological, and cultural boundaries. It is argued that pornography decreases the desire and appeal for long-term traditional relationships. Judaism requires women to dress modestly while the ancient Hindu text, the Kama Sutra, depicts sexual behavior in ways considered today to be porn. Feminists argue that it is a violent exploitation of women and promotes chauvinism, and that it leads to abusive relationships and makes men more likely to rape women. This essay will discuss possible answers to the posed question by illustrating the arguments for and against pornography. Pornography is often defined pejoratively: words like violent, degrading, and humiliating may be used with no acknowledgement that such descriptions are subjective and contextually relative (Ciclitira 286). A common view is that pornography is degrading to women. This statement is an opinion. Ones perception of pornographys depiction of sex is related to their own sexual experiences and their views on sex. Some women might say that porn is degrading if their own sexual experiences have left them feeling objectified or used or if they have been sexually assaulted. In this case, the idea of sex itself might be the issue and therefore the depiction of sex might remind that woman of her own negative experiences. Other women who have had positive sexual experiences and frequently enjoy sex might be excited by porn and see the depiction of sex as a reminder of their own positive and satisfying experiences. Not all pornography portrays females as being passive participants or simple sex objects. In many cases, the woman is not just giving pleasure, she is receiving it. The presentation of women enjoying sex and orgasming shows sex to be natural, healthy, and pleasurable not something to be ashamed of. Pornography can depict sex as something romantic and emotional or as an act between adults who love each other. The view that pornography is degrading to women disregards the views of women who create porn whether by writing it, producing it, or acting in it. It also disregards the pornography that illustrates a womans perspective of sex and porn that is aimed at female audiences. Many women willingly participate in the production of pornography whether for mass distribution or for private viewing. Many women also enjoy watching pornography alone or with their partner(s). Pornography is harmful to relationships is another view. The Flood article (393-394) states, US studies find that a consistent minority of female partners of male regular pornography users find it damaging both for their relationships and themselves. They see their male partners pornography use as a kind of infidelity, feel betrayal and loss, feel less desirable, and describe other negative effects on their relationships, sex lives and themselves (Bridges et al., 2003). First, this is a minority of females and the article does not state how low that minority is. The minority could be 10% of Latino or 3% of Caucasian females. A perception of porn use harming a relationship may point to fundamental flaws in the relationship that are only made more visible through porn use but do not exist because of the porn use. For example, the woman might believe her sex life is floundering because her partner is using porn rather than her to satisfy his sexual needs, but the man might be using porn because he is dissatisfied with the woman or disinterested in her. In this case, it is not the porn that is harming the relationship; it is the lack of communication between the partners: the man isnt open about his dissatisfaction so the woman sees the porn as causing the mans disinterest in her rather than being a result of the disinterest. On the other hand, the man may be interested and sexually attracted to the woman, but pornography offers a form of arousal that cannot be found elsewhere. A relationship could be sexually vibrant but the introduction of pornography may illicit unique sensations that overwhelms the male and makes the woman feel less valuable. Pornography may benefit relationships, as sex can be a very important aspect of a relationship establishing and maintaining closeness, giving each other pleasure, satisfying each others sexual desires, expressing affection, etc. A couple (married or dating) might watch porn in order to get aroused prior to engaging in intercourse. But one may argue why a healthy couple would need to watch something to illicit arousal. Pornography can be used to spice things up for the couple giving them ideas of new positions to try or inspiring role-playing scenarios. The statement that porn harms relationships is too broad. The information available on the harmful effects of pornography on relationships seems to be focused on heterosexual relationships while ignoring homosexual relationships. Another view is that pornography makes men more likely to rape women. The Flood article (393) talks about studies that show a correlation between teenage boys frequency of consumption of porn and their agreement with the idea that it is acceptable to hold down and force a girl to have sex. However, the ability of parents to block their children who are minors from viewing porn on the internet or TV while at home may diminish the frequency of porn. Even though minors can acquire pornography from outside the home (from friends, on a different computer, etc), if adults teach children starting from a young age about sex, its need to be consensual, its consequences, and the importance of respecting women and people in general, then young boys attitudes toward sex and females may very well be unaffected by pornography. Nevertheless, even if all young boys were taught in this way, they would not all absorb the important lesson. Other factors such as peer or media influences play large roles in young boys attitudes towards sex and the treatment of women and those would need to be controlled as well. Flood (392) also states that men who frequently use violent or rape porn are more likely to report that they would rape a woman if they could get away with it. This does not necessarily mean that the porn is planting the desire to rape a woman. Perhaps the man who would rape a woman watches the porn in order to see a fantasy that he cannot realize. In this case might the porn be somewhat satisfying the mans desire to rape and preventing him from doing so in reality. However, violent porn can give violent or sexual offenders venues to act out their fantasies. The watchers of violent porn may gain inspiration to go and act out their fantasies on innocent women. Flood cites Malamuths writing that men at high risk for sexual aggression are more likely aroused by it and more likely influenced by it (392). But what percentage of men are at high risk for sexual aggression? Does the predisposition to sexual aggression guarantee that the man will rape or assault a woman ONLY if he watches porn? Or does watching porn create sexual aggression and violent feelings towards women? This view is also strewn forth in the media. Barongan and Hall conducted a study where males listened to neutral or misogynous rap music before viewing sexually violent and neutral vignettes (196). They would then choose a vignette to show to a female. Their reasoning for the study is that misogynous messages appear in the media and they can contribute to negative attitudes or behaviors towards women. And pornography has been defined, by some, as sexually explicit materials that can evoke sexually abusive and degrading treatment of women. Some men may believe that their own sexual aggression against women is justified because it is seen or heard in the media, and if so, their actions are not wrong because they are common. The study showed that of males that listened to misogynous rap music 30% showed the violent vignette to their female. Surprisingly only 7% of the males who listened to neutral rap music showed the assaultive vignette. Viewing pornography that glorifies sexual coercion is particularly degrading and harmful. Is sexual coercion degrading to women? If you use random association with this statement, it can easily lead you to agree with the statement. Coercion is to force, compel, or persuade. If women are coerced into sex in pornography, it seems easy. Who is persuaded easily? Unintelligent people? Children? Therefore, women are stupid or as ignorant as a child for being coerced into sex. Non-normative sexual activities falling into the sexual coercion category such as BDSM (Bondage/Domination/Sadism/Masochism) are practiced by both women and men. To say that depiction of sexual coercion is degrading and harmful is to pass judgment on those people who participate in BDSM. Why shouldnt people with non-normative (but still legal) sexual desires have pornography available to them that is suited to their desires? BDSM can be viewed as strange or weird. Why not judge them for being weird? If only a small ma jority of people participate in BDSM, why are their views of sex important to the rest of the population. Sexual coercion and even rape are common themes of sexual role-play among consenting sexual partners. To depict sexual coercion in pornography is to depict a real life scenario within consensual sex. I believe that pornography has beneficial effects for some and harmful effects for others. Do I believe that pornography is degrading to women? Generally speaking, no. However, films that are violent or disturbing in nature, depicting women enjoying these acts that probably no one would enjoy taking part it, I feel is degrading to women. I think that sexually there are things that no woman would want to be involved in, and to show that some people would do so can humiliate and lessen the value of such person. Pornography that that simply depicts intimate and erotic acts, I do not think is degrading. As for pornography creating a prevalence of violence in men or having influences that compel someone to commit rape, I think it is very possible, but it is a person to person issue. I think men who through watching porn think it is okay to force intercourse upon someone will eventually think that regardless of if they have viewed porn. Some people are predisposed to being violent towards women in many other ways than pornography, and although pornography is not the route cause, it can definitely attribute. Non-violent men who respect women and have had meaningful relationship will not have suddenly commit rape after seeing pornography. I think it could evoke thoughts or fantasies similar to acts depicted in the porn they watch, but they will not go out and rape or take a life. I do believe that pornography can damage relationships, but once again, it can have the opposite effect depending on the individuals. I have heard of problems that pornography has caused in friends relationships. I have seen it stem from the fact that women in pornography have physical attributes that are exaggerated to increase sex appeal. I understand that women can feel subpar to the women in the films because they dont look a certain way or compare to these women in societys opinion. I believe the adult entertainment industry can be a contributor to self-esteem or image problems of young women today. Moreover, self-esteem and confidence issues play a huge role in the successfulness of a relationship. On the contrary, I have heard of pornography helping relationships by adding something new to a fading love life. Pornography can spice up a love life, or ruin one. It can illicit arousal for intimacy or to commit a sexually violent crime. Pornography involves acts that are very instinctual to us and therefore can evoke strong judgment towards both ends of the spectrum. Similar to abortion or euthanasia, it is important to find middle ground, and to encourage imaginative thinking where people will not rush to say pornography destroys relationships or causes rape, but it can destroy relationships and may give someone the idea to rape.