Monday, September 30, 2019

Finance and Positivism

Introduction According to Little (2005), philosophy of social science is a scholarly discipline that attempts to analyse the logic, methodology, modes of explanation of the social sciences, in which its studies include psychology, sociology, anthropology, history and economics. Social science provides understanding of everyday interactions of individuals and interactions among human society in social institutions. Providing prediction and explanation for human behaviour and its consequences are some of the main aims of social science (Rosenberg, 1988).The purpose of this paper is to examine how philosophy of social science can help in explaining speculators’ behaviours. This paper is divided into five sections. It will begin by explaining the speculative behaviours of stock traders on lottery type of stocks, the probable data source and methodology. This will be followed by introducing the concept of positivism and identifying the reasons for selecting positivism. This paper w ill also provide some criticisms to positivism. Lastly, the paper ends with a summary.Speculative Behaviours of the Stock Traders in Lottery Type of Stocks My research will be mainly focus on the speculative behaviours of the stock traders, such as fund managers and retail speculators on lottery type of stocks. Speculation is different from investment, in which according to Peers (2003), On the one hand, speculation involves taking large amount of risks attempting to earn quick profit. Speculation is a game where expected return and risk are both indeterminate.As a result, speculators need to take relatively large amount of risk with respect to attempt to predict the future. A simple example of speculation is purchasing gold. Speculators might think that buying gold is a better use of money due to the inflation. Since gold depends more on inflationary rate and relies less on global economy, buy gold during period of financial crisis will help speculators to generate quick profit. Ho wever, gold prices are now extremely high, and there is no guarantee that prices will keep increasing in the future.Since there are huge fluctuations in gold prices, speculators are very likely need to bear large amount of risk when they purchased gold. On the other hand, according to Taylor Frigon Capital Management LLC (2007) investment involves analyzing the future earning and the preference of participating in those future earnings. The expected future value of investment is higher than the cost of the investment. Expected future value takes into account for all of the potential good or bad events multiply by the probability of those events.Investors usually search for definable expected future value, minimize risk and investors have nominal risk aversion, which means that investors will prefer a more guaranteed payout and the uncertain one, otherwise, investors will need a higher expected returns in order for them to undertake the risk. Using the gold example to differentiate i nvestor and speculator, investors purchase gold and hold it for decades, because after couple of decades, the returns from selling those amounts of gold will be higher than the initial cost of buying those amounts of gold, even after subtracting the returns from the transaction costs.Furthermore, gold will still be considered as one of the most precious metal after couple of decades. Investors do not need to worry that the value of gold will worth nothing, thus expected future value is more guaranteed and risk is minimized to some extent. Speculators purchase gold during the periods of financial crisis, and sell gold in order to buy stocks during periods of bubble. This strategy can help speculators to generate quick profit, however, it is extremely hard to predict when bubble or crisis will occur, and this uncertainty might cause speculators to experience huge amount of loss as well.Lottery Type of Stocks According to Kumar (2009), some stocks are classified as lottery type because they have prominent characteristics of lottery. Lottery type of stocks has low prices and relatively high potential payoff, just like jackpot in lottery. The expected returns of lottery type of stocks are negative but low, and they have risky payoffs. The price distribution of lottery type of stocks has very high variance, and most particularly, the probability of earning a huge profit is extremely small.Since lottery type of stocks has a very big probability of experiencing a loss and a very small probability to generate a huge gain, both risk and expected future value are indeterminate. By applying the definition of investors and speculators that we mentioned earlier, only speculators will have the preference of buying lottery type of stocks, due to their risk loving behavior, while investors do not, because risk-averse investors prefer to minimize risk even though there is a small change to earn huge profit.Positivism One of the main topics in philosophy of social science is pos itivism. According to the Merriam-Webber’s Dictionary, â€Å"positivism† is a view of scientific methods and a philosophy approach that defines positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations as verified by the empirical sciences, and defines theology and metaphysic as earlier imperfect modes of knowledge.According to Perry, Riege and Brown (1999), some of the ontological assumptions of positivism are that the world exists externally, it is characterized by natural laws and it can be objectively observed by using a scientific way. In other words, positivism can be viewed as an appropriate methodology of social science, which emphasizes empirical observation. Positivism is also associated with empiricism, only the events, things or creatures that can be observed based on sense, experience and positive verification via the five senses can be considered as authentic knowledge.According to Creswell (2003), the underlying epistemological assumption of positivism is that there is an independent researcher of the research project, who is value and bias free, and has no influence on the result of research or data collected. Furthermore, Ticehurst and Veal (2000) states that the methodological approach for positivism is restricted in term of explanation and discovery of facts. Researcher uses developed theories and frameworks to describe behaviours based on the observations and facts collected.As a result, scientific, empiricist, experiental, deductive or quantitative approaches are involved in the research. In addition, Guba and Lincoln (1994) state that the paradigm stresses the value-free theory testing instead of theory building. Some of the key assumptions of the positivism paradigm, according to Phillips and Burbles (2000) include, first of all, researchers use null hypothesis because founded evidence in their research is usually fallible and imperfect. Secondly, majority of quantitative researches begin with the test of a theory.Researches can be considered as a practice of making claims, and subsequently either abandoning or refining them. Thirdly, knowledge is shaped by the data, evidence and rational considerations. Furthermore, research attempts to develop statements those are relevant and true, in which they are able to provide descriptions and explanations for the situation or causal relationship. Lastly, one of the most important parts of a competent inquiry is to being objective. Data and MethodologyIn order for lottery type of stocks to match the main characteristics of lotteries, first of all, the data will mainly focus on the stock with low prices (under one pound per stock). Within the set of stocks with low prices, my PhD research will focus on stocks with higher stock specific skewness, because these are the stock with higher potential payoff and they appears to be more attractive to speculators. Lastly, among the set of stocks with higher stock specific skewness and prices be low one pound, my PhD research will focus on stocks with higher idiosyncratic volatility.It is because stocks with higher idiosyncratic volatility are more likely to be considered as lottery type of stocks, because speculators might believe that when volatility is high, there is larger probability to realize the extreme returns that occurred in the past (Kumar, 2009). The methodology will be similar to Kothari and Warner (2006), in which the return of any given security at any given time can be obtained by adding the expected return based on expected return models, like Fama-French three factors model, to the abnormal return. The abnormal return of a given time eriod can be obtained by averaging all the abnormal returns of the given period. Given the test statistics provided by Kothari and Warner (2006), the paper will test the null hypothesis, comparing the returns of lottery type of stocks and index returns. If the test statistics are significantly lower, then the evidence may sug gest that the returns of lottery type of stocks underperform index returns, or vice versa. Criticisms to Positivism Some of the criticisms to the positivism is that the ontological position of positivist vis-a-vis reality that social reality exists in an independent way to the researcher (Schutz 1954).It is not helpful for the exploratory research, because the research attempts to understand meaning of the speculating process and varying perception of speculators. Berg (2004) claimed that people, events, objects and situation do possess meaning themselves; these elements confer meaning due to human interaction. Furthermore, it is inappropriate to ask the positivistic position on the epistemological question of â€Å"In what way one can obtain knowledge from a particular reality? † due to the postulation that investigating in such a reality provides no change to that reality.Moreover, one of the main criticisms of the positivism paradigm, according to Hussey and Hussey (1997), is that it is impossible to consider to people as being separate from the social contexts and they cannot be understood without apprehending their views of their own activities. A rigorously structured research design will impose some constraints on the results, and it might ignore more relevant findings, because researchers might carry their own value and interest to the research. The researchers cannot be objective because they are also part of what they are trying to observe.Lastly, statistical variables could be misleading as it is trying to capture complex phenomena. Reasons for Selecting the Positivist Paradigm Positivism is chosen to fit my PhD project, because according to Phan (2006), first of all, ontologically, stock markets is a financial world in which investment decisions can be considered as an external world, objectively adjusting itself, and individual perceptions or desires cannot have any influence. Secondly, quantifiable results are mainly the concerns in the wo rld of financial markets; it is impossible to make any alteration to the reality or to make any different perception.Thirdly, epistemologically, the researchers should be independent of their research projects, in other words, they should be free of bias and personal value, and should have no influence on the collection of data or the results of researches. Moreover, one of the main objectives of the PhD projects is to test hypothesis regarding to the returns of indexes and returns of lottery type of stocks, not to construct new theory or to implement any reform. Lastly, objectivity is important in the financial world in order to provide explanation to phenomena and causal relationships.To summarise, the PhD projects will be mainly focus on making measurements in a statistical and systematic way in order to provide validity, generalization, reliability for the measurements, as well as its predictive cause and effect (Casell and Symon 2004). Summary To sum up, my PhD research will be mainly focus on the speculative behaviours of the stock traders, such as fund managers and retail speculators on lottery type of stocks. The paper will be carry out using quantitative method and positivism fits very well in my research, as positivism is a methods that define positive knowledge which can be verified by empirical sciences.There are some criticisms about the ontological and epistemological assumption of positivism, nevertheless, the benefits of applying positivism exceeds it costs as my PhD research will mainly focus on making measurements in a statistical and systematic way to predict the cause and effect of different research topics, as well as their validity, generalization and reliability of the measurements. Reference: Berg, B. L. (2004) Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. 5th Edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Boston.Casell, C and Symon, G (2004), Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organisational Research, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK Creswell, J (2003), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach, 2nd Edition, Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA. Guba, E and Lincoln, Y (1994), Competing paradigms in qualitative research, Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Hussey, J. and Hussey, R. (1997) â€Å"Business Research† Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke Kumar, A. (2009) â€Å"Who Gambles in the Stock Market†, The Journal of Finance, Vol 64, No 4, 1889-1993Little, D. (2005) â€Å"Western Philosophy of Social Science† Peking University Lohpetch, D. andCorne, D. (2010) Outperforming Buy-and-Hold with Evolved Technical Trading Rules: Daily, Weekly and Monthly Trading, EvoApplications 2010, Springer LNCS Phan, A 2006, â€Å"Hedge funds and China’s stock market: a study on factors influencing investment decisions by fund managers†, DBA thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW. Peers, M. (2003) â€Å"A Guide To: Gambling, Investment, and Speculati on† Available at: www. math. byu. edu, Accessed on January 15, 2012Perry, C, Riege, A & Brown, L 1999, â€Å"Realism's role among scientific paradigms inmarketing research†, Irish Marketing Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 16-23. Phillips, DC and Burbules, NC (2000), Postpositivism and educational research, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Rosenberg, A. (1988) â€Å"Why a Philosophy of Social Science? † In Philosophy of Social Science. Boulder, CO:Westview Press 1-21. Schutz, A (1954), Concept and Theory Formation in the Social Sciences, The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 51, No. 9, 257-273 Ticehurst, GW and Veal, AJ (2000), Business Research Methods: A Managerial Approach, Pearson Education: NSW Australia

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Individual Reflection : Handling Difficult Conversation

This paper is my individual reflection on how to handle difficult conversations. We are faced with difficulty to transfer the message we want the other to understand and comply or support. Because of this complexity of communication barrier we end up in a conflict or a confrontation. When this happens we let go of the problem – forget it , avoid it, avoid being involved or ignore it. Learning two way conversation and certain strategies to handle a difficult conversation, is a step to better yourself in the way you voice out without any personal intent.In our everyday lives whether professional or personal we always encounter a difficult conversation – conflict on one and confrontation on the other. Most in some cases goes for the best of intentions for the benefit or interest of the person or the company. But what makes it a difficult conversation is how you relay the message on board, how one decides to handle it, how you understand it, how your message is being unders tood by the other and whether to comply or give support.My individual reflection for this is an incident that has occurred between two directors of the company whom are also the proprietors of the company – my mother and I. As much as my mother and I are the sole owners of the company, my late father left behind, I would like to use it in relation to this topic of difficult conversations in a professional setting. My mother and I have different ways of doing things and have different ideals when it comes to running a business. She is my superior as the Managing director of the company.She is old fashioned in her approach to things and also does not read or write and I am kind of what I’ll like to describe as transforming. There was a situation that occurred when some of our clients were complaining about the quality of the TV sets in their rooms and how they didn’t like the idea of them having to pay that much money for a night in the hotel and have to watch a b oxed TV instead of the new flat screen TV that were in vogue. I decided to have a meeting with my mother on this matter to explain the importance of upping our standards in terms of quality.My mum found this statement from me demeaning and queried me that it’s not in my place to talk to her about such matters. I on hearing those exact words flamed up and attacked saying I had as much rights and power as her when it meant running of the company and as such my opinions as well as decisions matters whenever I decide to put them forth. Next thing I noticed was that our conversation became so heated and filled with argument that we weren't even talking about the success of the business anymore but moved from away from its professional discussion to that of a personal confrontation.I decided to stop talking about this because I noticed my mother wasn't being receptive to anything I was saying at that moment, so I let the topic drop for that moment but went on to contact my aunt and explained to her my views on the issue and how difficult it was for my mother to see my view on the issue. This turned out to be a good idea as my aunt was able to relay my opinion concerning the company and its improvements and she helped to straightening out a lot of things also.Using my aunt as an intermediary between my mother and I was effective as it was able to quell the discord we were having as well as relay my opinions on the pressing issue at hand at that moment in time. But as time goes by I sat and thought over things that I cannot be using my aunt as an intermediary all the time my mother and I are having an argument. I had to think of a more approachable way to rely my messages across to my mother without creating any misunderstanding. I realized that I needed to deliver the message towards thinking of it as a two-way learning conversation.  (Christensen, 2011).When I thought over our argument I realized I involved too much emotions and forgot about the companyâ₠¬â„¢s interest. In that I noticed how money, as well as emotions are factors that lead to difficult conversations as Christensen. K (2011). Moreover I also didn’t take into consideration the age difference, refinement of etiquette, difference of seeing things and also literateness.I sat with my mother on a normal day and asked her â€Å"Mom, how did you understand when I told you we had to upgrade the quality of services we offer in the hotel?†, she said â€Å"Mariah, I am not stupid you know, I do not know how to read and write and that is not my fault because my parents couldn’t send me to school but I give you the opportunity and you benefitted to where you are today, and when you want to say something, talk to me in a manner you don’t have to be sarcastic. † It took me a while to understand what she meant by me being sarcastic. I wondered whether my being straightforward telling her the truth was unacceptable or was it the way I said it.As acco rding to Amy & Diana I realized I had a personal motive conflict between my mother and I when there are better ways to voice it out calmly without involving any personal interest or have any personal intention whatsoever Moreover I remembered what my father told me once that in business don’t argue to win or to imply who is right or wrong. A problem or an unpleasant event has happened instead of sitting there and complaining and arguing what should and should not be done, take the professional actions to solve the problem if it benefits the company and everybody at the end. No loss occurred and incurred.Well, if I had listened to my father I do not think I would end up having an argument with my mother and wasting time to solve the problem. Nevertheless, from this course I have learned from Amy & Diana to practice self – management â€Å"the ability to examine and transform the thoughts and feelings that hijack one’s ability to reason cally when conflicts heat up†, reflecting on spontaneous reactions – â€Å"once a conflict triggers an emotional reaction, reflecting can cool one’s own emotion down by turning the automatic â€Å"go† response into a more deliberate â€Å"know† response†, reframing and manage conversations.Moreoevr according to Engels, he stated that when you deliver difficult messages you should avoid ordering/directing, warning/threatening, preaching/moralizing, advising/giving solutions, evaluating/blaming and interpreting/diagnosing. In which I realized I was having a rather ordering tone with my mother. Being that I am able to admit where I am having a problem with delivering my messages, from what I have learned I would be well prepared to most especially listen before I react and plan for a better conversation and find a more comfortable way in relaying my messages across.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A Study On Globacom Limited Marketing Essay

A Study On Globacom Limited Marketing Essay Nigeria’s mobile telecommunication industry started in 2001, with the launch of Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM). Since then, Nigeria has emerged as the fasting growing Telecommunications economies in the Africa, and third in the world, after China and Brazil (Aneke, 2009). Globacom is one of the biggest telecommunication companies in Nigeria, It is the only Telecommunication company amongst the top 4 GSM providers, to be have originated from Nigeria. Not only is Globacom a proudly Nigerian company, it has successfully been targeted as the pace setter (based on innovations) of the telecommunications industry in Nigeria (Ochai, 2009 ). Since its launched in 2002, and started its operations in August 2003, it was the first mobile phone service provider to offer per second billing in Nigeria. This gave Globacom a great competitive advantage, has other mobile operators were only offering per minute billing (Ochai, 2009). The next paragraph looks at the background of Gl obacom, to understand how it started, and see how far it has gone since its inception. Background of Globacom Globacom was launched in 2002 by Nigerian business tycoon / billionaire Dr Mike Adenuga, who is already successfully in the oil industry, with Conoil plc and the banking industry with Equatorial Trust bank (ETB). It started operations in August 2003 by offering both per second and per minute billing. Being the first in Nigeria to offer per second billings, people gradually started swapping their SIMS to Globacom SIMS as the per second billing was seen as a cheaper option. Globacom started to grow and gain market share, just one year after it started operations, it has gained 25% market share in the telecommunications industry. The next paragraph is the Globacom Vision, now that its background has been analysis, it is necessary to see where it plans to go. (check for definition of vision and adjust this part and the beginning of the next) Globacom’s Vision Globacomâ₠¬â„¢s vision is building Africa’s biggest and best Telecommunications network (www.gloworld.com ). This is a big dream for a company that started just six years ago. So far they are aiming towards achieving their goal by being continuously innovative and being one of the best telecommunication services providers in Nigeria. Globacom is now present in Nigeria, Cà ´te d’Ivoire, Benin republic and Ghana (www.gloworld.com). Now that the vision is known, the subsequent chapter analysises the Globacom strategies so far in the bid to realise its vision. Key strategies: creating a competitive positioning Market target Globacom Limited’s market target is the generation X and Generation Y of the Nigerian and African population, based on the type of products and services they offer. They have continued to offer services that would appeal to this target Audience. The products and services includes free Globacom to Globacom midnight, free MMS, and lots more. Globacom Limit ed has also targeted the average and below average citizen they constitute majority of the Africa population and they have done this by reducing their pricing, which makes their products and services more appealing to them. Cost leadership

Friday, September 27, 2019

Death be not proud because I could not stop for death Essay

Death be not proud because I could not stop for death - Essay Example Donne treats death as a person in his poem and contradicts its power. He tells death not to be so proud as it is not as scary as it shows people it is. The writer tells death that it isn’t as powerful as it thinks it is and he contradicts its strength. The writer says that people don’t die when they meet death and neither will he himself. He compares death with ‘rest and sleep’ (Donne 11), the two things which are peaceful and not scary at all. He says that the good people know that death doesn’t bring pain rather pleasure. The poem further goes on to explain death as a slave and the writer accuses death of being associated with elements such as poison, sickness, and war. He says that he could just have some drugs and fall asleep which is just the same as death would be. Death is considered to be just a short sleep that humans take and then the good ones wake up again to eternity (Donne 11). Since this happens, death is not eternal and death dies whi ch means it has no power. The beginning of the poem focuses on the theme of death and the speaker addresses death as a proud person with an attitude problem who thinks himself as the most powerful. The speaker says that death considers himself as someone who can boss around and overpower the people. It is a powerful force that scares people and people wish to escape it. He is treated as the king as everyone thinks it is here to do something terrible (Donne 11). However, the speaker says that he isn’t afraid and he knows that death isn’t as scary as it shows everyone. The speaker confronts death and tells him that he isn’t scared as he knows that people think wrong. The poem then forms further elements that death is not actually death and it dies with reference to the Christian tradition that everyone will rise for eternity. This means that death is not real and it is not forever.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

How movies affect the audience Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

How movies affect the audience - Term Paper Example For example, most films in Bollywood in India feature more on strong family values. There are only little or no sex and violent scenes. In Nollywood, located in Nigeria, most films have their basis on the reality that most Africans face, such as family struggles, faith conflicts and achieving a balance between modernity and traditional values. In most cases, the films are depicted in a satirical outlook. The South Korean film industry also focuses on what most Asians go through, the historical and personal impacts of life events. In all these film industries, the films have had an impact on viewers. For example, films in Nigeria have raised concerns in most African countries with people worrying that there will be â€Å"Nigerianization† of their cultures given that their films possess a lot of Nigerian culture and dialect. How does the effect of the film impact on the audience? In Hollywood, perhaps the films cannot be said to have the same effect such as making the rest of Europe â€Å"Americanized†, but the effect is still notable. Even when a person is one of the healthiest, watching certain films is likely to have an effect on a person in ways they cannot imagine. The films have cuts, camera angles and scenes that change and these are the film aspects that have an effect on human behavior, views and decision-making process (Plantinga, 2009). Admittedly most people are never conscious about the cuts that film editors make in a film. Camera angles also change so many times in a scene, but people are usually too engulfed in the film to notice such changes. To keep most audiences in America and the rest of the world entertained, filmmakers are well aware that making certain shift cuts in certain scenes have more impact than if the same cuts are made in other scenes of a film. Cutting that occur s in the films might seem very unrealistic, but moving the

The Law Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Law - Coursework Example Laws are there to ensure that two individuals become a [part of each other in a legal form and these laws are there to protect the right of individuals to own a property. Laws are there to ensure that all individuals are free and safe; law restricts and deals properly with those individuals who try to violate the rights of others. Hence, the main reason of existence of law is to control and maintain social order. A society where law has no control or there is no existence of law, will be government by certain individuals who have higher authority and those individuals will use their power and harm the interest of the society and will operate against the two basic right of each individuals; all individuals are free and equal. Criminal law refers to the legal regulations that the state has created and if these regulations are not accepted and individuals who operate against these regulations, they are recognized as criminals by the court of law. Other forms of law are recognized as civ il laws, and this kind of law is practiced when two private entities fail to comply with an agreement. The constitution and the policy makers of US has made several efforts to standardize law in all jurisdiction, one effort of standardization has been made in standardization of Common Law. Common law has mainly been standardize to the extent of purchase and sale of assets, property, services and goods, this standardization has taken place as the entire nation has adopted the Uniform Confirmation Code. The policy makers have even tried to standardize tort law by developing new and revising old statements of torts, but not all jurisdictions have accepted the continuous changes in tort law and have rejected several changes. Tort law covers those areas in which one individual or one organization inflicts or tries to inflict harm to other individuals and

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Environment - Essay Example The remedy of such issues needs responsible and careful use of scientific principles. Therefore, it is essential for the engineer to address issues in a professional manner that will ensure there are minimal or no effects towards the environment (Brown, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to show the role of engineers in maintain a healthy environment suitable for the living of human beings. The paper will tackle how engineers are working hand in hand with environmentalist to make sure that their activities do not affect the ecology. Additionally, the paper will look at the role of engineers in recycling waste products that have the potential of being re-used and how they are trying to substitute the use of organic materials with plastics. For another thing, the role of engineers in developing the old methods of engineering that had environmental and health effects to new methods that are safe will be taken into account. Lastly, the paper is going to tackle on renewable sources of energy that can be used so as to save energy and meet the needs of the accruing world population in the years to come. Dumping of chemical wastes in the water, soil and air directly lead to the pollution of rivers and air, and automotive and industrial smoke. Urban development and housing have numerous ecological consequences; the process of building a house consumes energy and raw materials, and the subsequent expansions affect the extensive environment. The energy necessities of housing contribute extensively to global warming. The Generation of dangerous gases and other waste materials, and the release of harmful materials from the different stages of nuclear fuel phases results in global warming (Bell, 2011). Environmentalists and engineers need to work in harmony more than in the ancient times. Ecologists and other ecological scientists must work together with the engineers so as to define the necessities of significant environmental processes and conditions

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Privacy Issues in Social Networking Research Paper

Privacy Issues in Social Networking - Research Paper Example This aspect also renders individuals liable for their usage of the technologies. This paper will discuss the privacy issues in social networking. It is a requirement by most social networking sites that users read and agree to a code of use policy prior to using their services. Controversially, these policies that users have to accept usually contain clauses allowing the social networking operators to store users’ data and even share it with other parties (Randall & Richards 1). The operators hold on to data and make it difficult to delete accounts even after deactivating them while sharing personal information with third parties. Surveys have shown that there are several key privacy risks for social network users, such as total information awareness, broadcasting to wrongdoers and having no control over one’s information related to identity (Gross & Acquisti 1). All social networking sites require and offer varying privacy levels. For example, a site like Facebook encourages the use of real names and personal information like a telephone number, address and birth date while signing up for a new profile. They eve n get more intimate by asking for relationship status, hobbies religion, and sexual preference. Among the sites that encourage disclosure of personal information, a trend has been noticed where most users seem comfortable with disclosing to the public (Gross & Acquisti 1). This information spreads faster via social networking sites than in a real-life network. Because the information is in digital format and can easily be copied, stored and searched, it may find its way to groups of people unexpectedly. This is especially harmful to users if the information travels in different spheres, ending up with unintended recipients. Social network sites receive financial enticements from advertisers to generate revenues through the information users submit (Randall & Richards 1).

Monday, September 23, 2019

Essay of the Korean film my wife is a gangster(2001)

Of the Korean film my wife is a gangster(2001) - Essay Example not only revive the Korean cinema with the predominant feature of gangster movies but also with the concern of gender representations which was something that the Korean movies hadn’t seen before. Gangster movies have been a common aspect of the Korean films but the Korean film industry has seen a significant change since the release of mega-hit movies such as My Wife is a Gangster and My Sassy Girl. These films had changed the perception of gangster movies in the Korean culture as they involved an improved representation of women in the society (Choi, 2010). The film showed a female gangster who is looking for a husband to fulfill the wish of her dying sister. The woman simply ordered her supervisors to look for an appropriate man and when they found one, he is seen teaching her how to behave like an appropriate woman. The female gangster, Eun-jin is usually seen suppressing her husband and avoiding to do the homely chores that she is expected to do as a wife. She gets pregnant and at the same times gets in deeper trouble with her doings as a gangster. Traditionally, the representation of women and gangster movies in the Korean film industry were two different perceptions. Women in Korea were often depicted under the patriarchal conventions and were seen in movies such as romance or comedy. Even though My Wife is a Gangster saw women in a tough image, the overall representation of women was still seen from the male perspective not only in Korea but in most of the Asian countries. The Korean gangster films including women in tough roles did not tend to detect the misrepresentation of women and these films commonly concealed the misrepresentations of women. Many of the common spectators are unconsciously filled with the movie’s hidden meanings and their ideologies (Choi, 2010). The critical thinking on the Korean gangster movies until My Wife is a Gangster was related to suited men involved in gangster wars that had become the highest profiting trend for

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ethnic groups Essay Example for Free

Ethnic groups Essay Historical descriptions of ethnic groups are normally aimed at establishing certain pattern of perception and interpretation and as well at as clarifying racial differences and peculiarities. On the other hand, the essays, written by the representatives of American nation, sometimes prominently demonstrate biased attitude towards the archetypical ‘otherness’. In Gjerde’s book one can find the extracts from historical documents, addressing such ethnic groups as Chinese, Mexicans and Hindu. Due to the fact that East Asian immigrants deprived Americans of their work in food production at the beginning of the 20th century, the statement about their immorality doesn’t seem surprising. The earlier documents assume that Chinese lifestyle is unacceptable for American citizens, due to their immoral beliefs and convictions in family as a basis of sound society. Moreover, such ‘nominal’ households are viewed as pathology: â€Å"there are apparently few families living as such, with legitimate children† (p. 276). Furthermore, J. Blaine argues that Chinese should not be regarded as Christians, as their patterns of social life tremendously differ from those of European immigrants, who seek to settle down and begin family life in the U. S. His arguments seem quite unusual for a modern reader: â€Å"You cannot work a man who must have beef and bread, alongside of a man, who can live on rice† (p. 277). In 1911, the Asiatic Exclusion league held that Asian immigrants experienced troubles getting along with local communities and integrating into American society. It is important to keep in mind that multiculturalism arose in the U. S. comparatively not long ago, so the beginning of the 20th century was definitely a period of racial discrimination: for instance, Asians (Chinese, Hindu and Japanese) were charged with their religious beliefs and the extrapolation of their understanding of worship and spirituality onto the Christian land, where they erected they pagan shrines and arranged rituals, which offended contemporary moral tradition. European immigrants, in turn, are portrayed as individuals with low intelligence and poor morality, especially Polish Jews, who adopted American names, but belonged to the distinct religious groups and seemed dangerous due to their craftiness (Levin, 1997). The ex-Europeans are shown similar to Caliban, the mythological monster: due to the domination of Lombroso’s criminological physiognomy, they are regarded as dangerous given their appearance, including large stature and poor active dictionary, which seems an indicator of mental tardiness. â€Å"That the Mediterranean peoples are morally below the races of Northern Europe is as certain as any social fact. Even when they were dirty, ferocious barbarians, these blonds were truthtellers [†¦] Immigration officials find that the different peoples are as day and night in point of veracity, and report vast trouble in extracting the truth from certain brunet nationalities† (p. 285). Even the closest ‘siblings’ of Americans, the British, are also described as narrow-minded people, who have no ambitions or aspirations (Levin, 1997, Fraser, 1995). Mexican immigrants are depicted by Mr. Box as impulsive individuals, whose blood contain the mixture of Mediterranean, Spanish and Indian genes and, moreover, mixed with Negroes and mulattos and therefore can be considered an inferior race that lacks more or less established traditions and common sense. In addition, the author indicates that Mexicans are illiterate and negligent in terms of basic sanitary and hygiene and therefore are particularly exposed to viral diseases. Crime and pauperism are also attributed to this ethnic group, as Mexicans have exceptionally rush and impetuous natures and are therefore predisposed to serious deviance and disobedience. The case known as ‘Thind v. United States’ conceptualizes the meaning of race and distinguishes between ethnic groups in order to draw the most correct definition of American as a representative of the nation. ‘Race’ as a legal term is addressed through the descriptions of certain groups, which possess common characteristics, in addition, the paper recognizes that Americans, Hindu and Caucasians have common ancestor, whereas there is a notable diversity in terms of appearance. The paper nonetheless takes discriminatory approach to nativism and indicates that Hindu immigrants cannot be viewed as native Americans in any case, as they inherit their ethnic characteristics, whereas French, german and British immigrants easily assimilate into American nation and therefore can be regarded as ‘free whites’. John Highman, analyzing the document, claims that racial nativism is a historically controversial issue given the complicated social and political development of the United States: the notion or race and the moral evaluation of racial characteristics are completely determined by contemporary attitudes towards various cultural groups. In addition, the methodological problems underlies in the gradual modification of public understanding of race, whose original indicator was skin color when the first scholars were attempting to identify and outline the racial constructs. Such pragmatic and oversimplified approach was to great extent convenient in the period of colonization, as they allowed literally making difference between aliens and peers and maintain Christian superiority in the country. The epoch of Romanticism was marked with the so-called Anglo-Saxonism, which pointed to the uniqueness of race, especially Anglo-Saxon derivation, appealing to psychology and emotional intelligence. Naturalists, on the contrary sought to identify the similarities of external appearance: skin color, stature and skull form. â€Å"Quite commonly, the school associated physical with cultural differences and displayed, in doing so, a feeling of white superiority over colored race. On the whole, however, the leading scientific thinkers did not regard race differences as permanent, pure and unalterable† (p. 293). The natural scientists addressed the notion of heredity and further gave birth to eugenics, the science about artificial selection and resulted in the numerous immigration restrictions, primarily –because of the belief in the inheritance of personality traits, which, as one can conclude from historical documents were stigmatized as unacceptable practically in relations to each immigrant group. At the same time, Ripley, an anthropologist, after studying the traits and characteristics of European population, categorized Europeans into three groups: Teutonic, Mediterranian and Alphine. Due to the scientific enlightenment, the final historical event that resulted in the definition of ‘free white American’ was Grant’s study, which suggested the supremacy of Anglo-Saxon group and implied the acceptance of European ethnic groups, proved as racially and genetically close to Americans. Haney-Lopez provides a brief historical overview of the Thind’s and Ozawa’s cases and shows the so-called societal pressure upon the Court’s decision: even though Thind unquestionably was ‘Caucasian’ (the descendant of white race), he wasn’t identified as ‘free white’, because of commonly shared standard of whiteness, which he failed to fit into. In Ozawa’s case, the Court simply pointed to the plaintiff’s Mongolian origin and rejected the color test only because of the dominant position of ‘whiteness’-oriented religious values, which were likely to be challenged through â€Å"overlapping of races†(p. 301). When Thind required naturalization, the prejudiced attitude towards Hindu ethnic group became a considerable obstacle, whereas scientific facts showed that his petition should have been satisfied, but the verdict referred to the opinion of average man. This means, the issue of race is not purely physiological or psychological, but refers more to the multifaceted social construct, which, as it has been noted, relates to the perception of ‘otherness’. In fact, if the Court had naturalized Thind, numerous political changes should have been introduced, such as wage norms and labor standards for Hindu, so the judicial body acted in favor of government political course. Reference list Levin, M. (1997).Why Race Matters : Race Differences and What They Mean (Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence). Praeger. Fraser, S. (1995). The bell curve wars : race, intelligence, and the future of America. New York : BasicBooks. Gjerde. Racialization of Immigrants, 1880-1930, pp. 275-290. Highman, J. The Evolution of Thought on Race and the Development of Scientific Racism. In Gjerde, pp. 291-298 Haney-Lopez, I. The Evolution of Legal Constructions of Race and ‘Whiteness’. In Gjerde, pp. 298-305

Friday, September 20, 2019

Functional Behavioral Assessment Example

Functional Behavioral Assessment Example Functional Behavioral Assessment Mitchell Sample is a fifteen year old male student in the tenth grade at Anytown High School. He lives at home with his parents, Mary and Joseph Sample, three older siblings, all male. Mitchell was referred for a functional behavior assessment due to noncompliance with classroom rules and emotional outbursts he exhibits within the school setting. These outbursts have resulted in his periodic removal from the regular education classroom setting. His behavior and consequent removal from class is affecting his academic performance. He is failing all his classes with the exception of Art II and PE. Kerr maintains that a functional behavior analysis â€Å"contribute to more effective interventions.† For this reason an FBA is needed to determine the function of the behavior and how to establish a plan that will redirect the target behavior in to the proper direction. Background Information consisting of parent interviews and review of permanent records indicate that Mitchell was initially referred for special education and related services when he was eight years old due to low academics and behavioral concerns. He was found ineligible for services and has attended a general education classes ever since. He has remained in general education environment since the time. Mitchell has a history of struggling academically. He is demonstrating noncompliant behavior by not turning in assignments and ignoring teaching requests and commands. Recently, he has started exhibiting emotional outbursts which causes a removal from the regular education setting. These outbursts interfere with his education as well as the education of other students in the class. Description of Assessment Methods Direct Observations of performance for three hours across six settings which included World History class, English 10 class, Algebra 1 class, art class, lunch and hall pass time. Teacher Interviews utilizing a variation of the Functional Assessment Interview Form. Educational records review, including child teacher support team file. Functional Assessment Results Kerr and Nelson (2010) point out that â€Å"educators are required to conduct an FBA when persistent behavioral concerns exist (FBA is commonly a part of the pre-referral and referral activities, and IEP development, review, and revision for misbehaving students) they are also required by law to conduct it within 10 days of any singular offense by a student with a disability that is punishable by:removal to an Interim Alternative Educational Setting† (Kerr, 2010). A functional assessment of behaviors of concern was conducted for this report using indirect (interviews) and descriptive (structured observation) methods. A topographical definition of the behaviors of concern was developed from interviews and then the behaviors of concern were observed utilizing a momentary time sampling. The antecedents, functions and consequences were then analyzed for this report based on recommended research standards in order to develop a hypothesis for the reasons for the behavior. A-B-C CHART Antecedent Behavior Consequence World History: Demands placed on Mitchell in classroom. Mitchell talks and ignores teacher instructions. Teacher repeats instruction while asking Mitchell to comply with the request. Teacher initiates classroom transition. â€Å"Turn in your warm up and take out your study guide for review.† Mitchell says, â€Å"I don’t have my study guide† and then turns to talk to peer. Teacher asks Mitchell to stop talking, and then asks him specifically to turn in his warm up. Teacher gives copy of study guide to Mitchell, and tells him, â€Å"Fill this out as we review answers.† Mitchell tosses paper on desk, and says, â€Å"Yea, right. Doesn’t make any difference if I do it or not. Screw you.† Teacher ignored Mitchell’s comment and started review. Class begins study guide review activity. Mitchell talks to peer as teacher conducts lesson. Teacher requests Mitchell remain quiet while review is going on unless he is answering a question about the review. Teacher gives Mitchell choice of not talking during instruction or going to the hall. Mitchell chooses to go to the hall. Mitchell walks away from class and is written up for being in an unauthorized area. Art class: Mitchell is given clay to work with. Mitchell participates in activity without disrupting class. Mitchell has clay formed and stored for use for next class period. Algebra 1 class: Teacher asks class to get out their assignment to be checked. Mitchell is talking to peer and does not comply. Teacher ignores Mitchell’s talking and Mitchell does not work on his assignment. English 10: Mitchell is asked to remain silent and get his assignment out to pass in. Mitchell replied, â€Å"I don’t have the damn assignment.† . Mitchell is written up for insubordination and inappropriate use of language Description of Behavior (1) Emotional Outbursts: Data Collection: Data were collected in five minute time sample recordings using a partial interval recording. A positive interval of this behavior was recorded if the behavior occurred at any time during the five minute interval. Data are reported using percentage of positively scored intervals. Data Collection Outcome: This behavior was observed on two occasions once during English 10 and twice during World History. On the first occasion, the behavior occurred for 12 out of the 30 minute intervals. On the second occasion, the behavior occurred for 10 out of the 30 minutes intervals. (2) Noncompliant behavior Data Collection: Using the five minute time sample, this behavior occurred in three settings. On the first occasion the behavior occurred for 15 of the 30 minutes. On the second occasion, the behavior occurred during the entire 30 minutes. On the third occasion, the behavior occurred for 10 of 10 minutes. Antecedent Analysis In an antecedent analysis, one tries to identify the events, situations and circumstances that set the occasion for a higher likelihood of the behavior and those that set the occasion for a lower likelihood. Analysis of these variables allows a more specific intervention as well as identification of environmental mediators to more fully assess the maintaining variables (Scott, T., Anderson, C., Spaulding, S., 2008). Based on the functional assessment interviews and structured observations, the emotional outbursts behavior can occur during any instructional class period (Scott, T., Anderson, C., Spaulding, S., 2008). It is reported that this behavior usually occurs when the teacher makes a request for Mitchell follow class procedures or produce classwork. During the structured observations, Mitchell exhibited this behavior during English 10 instruction after the teachers request for the assignment was made. During World History, Mitchell did not have his homework and continued to ta lk even when the teacher specifically requested he remain quiet during instructional time. Function of the Behaviors The functions of these behaviors produce attention, escaping the assigned task, and being removed from the classroom. In Mitchell’s situation, the function of his behavior appears to be avoiding academic classwork. References Kerr, M., Nelson, C. M. (2010). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom  (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Scott, T., Anderson, C., Spaulding, S. (2008). Strategies for developing and carrying out  functional assessment and behavior intervention plans. Preventing School Failure, 52(3),  39–50. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Education Research Complete  database: http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=ehhAN=32013629site=ehost-livescope=site

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Importance of Weather in Kate Chopins The Storm :: Chopin Storm Essays

The Importance of Weather in The Storm      The Storm, by Kate Chapin, is a short story about two people that have and affair during a storm.   Basically, it’s like this.   The story involves two families, that of Bobinot, Calixta, and Bibi, and Alcee, Clarisse, and their babies.   Calixta is at her house separated from her family due to the storm.   Alcee is separated from his family because they are visiting another town.   The storm brings Calixta and Alcee together and they have an affair.   It s set in a small town in the late 1800s.   A storm can mean many things, both good and bad, and it is important to the story both symbolically and directly.      Ã‚  Ã‚   The storm acts as a catalyst in the story as it causes the events to unfold as they do.   The first real direct effect the storm has in the story is that it is what causes Bobinot and Bibi to stay at the local store to take shelter.   This of course leaves Calixta home alone.   Alcee, we are lead to believe, was out riding his horse somewhere near Calixta s house when the storm started.   This causes him to take shelter there.      Ã‚  Ã‚   Before Calixta got married five years earlier, the two had romantic feelings toward each other.   They rarely saw each other after that, and this what the first time since then that they had been alone together.   Because of the awkward feelings he had, Alcee   expressed an intention to remain outside (666).   This is where the storm, because it is a rather big storm, forces him to go inside.   Once inside it seems harmless conversation would be all that took place.   But alas, the storm once again comes into play.   While Calixta, worried about her family, it looking out the window the storm sends down a huge lightning bolt into a tree nearby.   This causes her to jump and for Alcee to instinctively grab her in his arms.   The storm now comes into play one last time.   As Calixta is nervously pacing around the house (because of the storm), Alcee grabs her shoulders in an attempt to calm her down.   At this point their old feelings become too overwh elming resulting in an affair.   When the storm ends, it symbolizes the end of the affair.   We are never told what Chapin meant by the title   The Storm.

LITERATURE REVIEW: Theories on Student Attrition :: Essays Papers

LITERATURE REVIEW: Theories on Student Attrition Since the early 70s theorists have pondered the causes of college dropout. Generally referred to as â€Å"student attrition,† this problem has spurred numerous causal theories and theoretical models. Vincent Tinto led the research with his revolutionary 1973 study, which he later revised (1987) amid criticism from other luminaries in the field, most notably Bean, Astin, Terenzini, and Pascarella. It is on the work of these scholars (including also Tinto) that all modern research in the student attrition field is based. I found and will review in brief some of the extensive research from Tinto to the present, including the basic criticisms therein. I will further explain the steps some colleges are currently taking to counteract this increasingly important issue. Little or no research was conducted on student attrition prior to Tinto, and every piece of research I found contained several references to him and his work. Ishitani and DesJardins claim that the majority of research on the subject has been based on Tinto’s model (7), as does Metz in his research review (4). Metz, however, goes on to assert that Tinto’s main source was a certain Rites of Passage, by Arnold van Gennep. Focusing on the anthropological perspective of human â€Å"rites of passage,† van Gennep’s study elucidates the basic human nature behind much of the college experience. Tinto primarily utilizes the chapter entitled â€Å"Initiation Rites† in his model, a chapter in which van Gennep claims â€Å"that physiological puberty and ‘social puberty’ are essentially different† (Gennep 65). Tinto sees the transition from high school to college as a form of this â€Å"social puberty.† Tinto further a rgues that the maturation process is â€Å"marked by three distinct phases or stages, each with its own specialized ceremonies and rituals†¦[e]ach serv[ing] to move individuals from youthful participation to full adult membership in society† (Tinto 92). College, according to van Gennep and Tinto therefore, is simply part of this sociological maturation process. Tinto’s original theory involved five specific factors that contributed to student retention: (1) a student’s pre-entry attributes (prior schooling and family background); (2) goals and commitment (the student’s individual aspirations in the institution); (3) experience at the institution (academics and faculty and peer interactions); (4) external commitments while at the institution; (5) integration both academically and socially (Metz 4).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Genetic Engineering Brings More Harm Than Good :: Genetic Engineering Essays

Until the recent demise of the Soviet Union, we lived under the daily threat of nuclear holocaust extinguishing human life and the entire biosphere. Now it looks more likely that total destruction will be averted, and that widespread, but not universally fatal, damage will continue to occur from radiation accidents from power plants, aging nuclear submarines, and perhaps the limited use of tactical nuclear weapons by governments or terrorists. What has gone largely unnoticed is the unprecedented lethal threat of genetic engineering to life on the planet. It now seems likely, unless a major shift in international policy occurs quickly, that the major ecosystems that support the biosphere are going to be irreversibly disrupted, and that genetically engineered viruses may very well lead to the eventual demise of almost all-human life. In the course of the major transformations that are on the way, human beings will be transformed, both intentionally and unintentionally, in ways that will make us something different than what we now consider human. Regardless of the dangers, we are rushing full speed ahead on almost all fronts. Some of the most powerful multinational chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural corporations have staked their financial futures on genetic engineering. Enormous amounts of money are already involved, and the United States government is currently bullying the rest of the world into rapid acceptance of corporate demands concerning genetic engineering research and marketing. In the 1950's, the media was full of information about the great new scientific miracle that was going to make it possible to kill all of the noxious insects in the world, to wipe out insect-born diseases and feed the world's starving masses. That was DDT. In the 1990's, the media is full of information about the coming wonders of genetic engineering. Everywhere are claims that genetic engineering will feed the starving, help eliminate disease, and so forth. The ideas and evidence presented below are intended to help evaluate that central question. Some scientists believe that, since genetic codes determine the appearance, personality, health, and aging process of human beings, if that genetic information in the chromosomes could be decoded and the genetic mechanism were understood, we could potentially control and improve our health, quality of life, and the biochemical processes in our bodies. In other words, we could control our own fate. Also, we'd be able to improve the genes of other animals and vegetables so that they could serve humankind better. At first sight, these ideas seem reasonable and attractive. However, careful analysis reveals that they are based upon an incorrect theory--the theory of gene determinism. Genes are often described as 'blueprints' or 'computer programs' for

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Music Video Proposal Essay

The track I’m going to use to make a music video has a genre of a mix between indie and very chill out music this has made me think about what video will suit the music. My idea for the music video will be a narrative based , and the story will between a girl and boy in a relationship and they have split up and they cant see the love they have for each other anymore based on this the story will also involve them getting back together. Reason I have chosen this is because the track that was mixed has a somewhat depressing feel to it when you listen to it and the lyrics also explain this story well (referring to different parts of the lyrics) My video will promote the track, as it is not a piece of music you can listen to on the radio and sing to it. That would get plaid on the radio. Therefore, it needs something to make it viewable and push the viewing of the music. By using a video, that’s video to go with the track will really help also I think using the video it will appeal to a wider range audience. With the story of a break up I think it will stereotypically appeal to older teenagers to around the age of mid 30s, because often in this age a girl would have been through a relationship and then broke up and maybe been upset then it could appeal to them as a target audience. My music video will be relatively simple and include animation at the start of the music video and the end. The animation will consist of a boy and girl sitting at a bench and they have sad expressions on their face, in between them will be an animated heart which will split as they get up and walk separate directions to each other. And then animation at the end will have the bench with this time another man on the bench with half a heart then the girl also with half a heart joins him on the bench and the heart makes one. This will be in a style of narrative because its telling the story of the lyrics in the song. From narrative animation to concept real life my music video will carry on from the animation to a shot of the girl filmed in Ipswich town centre she will be moving very slow and the rest of the people around her will be moving very quick. With this effect it will be given the proposed reading that everyone is moving on and she is not. I will achieve this effect by filming the shot with the girl moving very very slowly and then in the editing stage I will speed up the pace so it gives the effect she is moving very slow and everyone else is moving fast. My video will use this shot when the girl sings but I will use different angles and cuts so it does not look boring. in the song there is also the boy singing he is very much in the same mood and cannot move on but wants to and he is very much sad. My idea for this shot will be that he is in the underground where he is alone and he can be sitting on the floor not really knowing what he is doing there giving the audience a picture that he is very much confused and upset. Also I will be using the graffiti wall in Ipswich close to the train station , the man in the video will be walking along this wall. Close to the end of the track both the male and female are singing for this I will use footage from the graffiti wall and the girl walking slowly but showing both on screen so we get a view of both persons point of view and then when the music stops is comes to the animation showing the girl has moved on .

Monday, September 16, 2019

Food Security of Bangladesh Essay

Though they have taken so many initiatives for food security recently, but those are not sufficient comparatively to our growing population. Although food grain is more available in good harvest years, Bangladesh as a whole still has a very low level of nutrition. This means many households and individuals do not eat a balanced, nutritious diet, even in good years. According to the World Bank, approximately 33 million of the 150 million people in Bangladesh cannot afford an average daily intake of more than 1800 kilocalories (the minimum standard for nutrition as set by the World Food Program). For people in most developing countries, the daily calorie average is 2,828. In Bangladesh, that average is only 2,190. Poverty is the major factor effecting food security in Bangladesh. Despite the impressive increases in food grain, around half of Bangladeshis remain below the established food based poverty line. And, as many as one third are living in extreme poverty and severely undernourished. Recent food price increases, regular natural disasters, and strains on the global economic market have caused additional destabilization. Bangladesh is a agricultural land. And our country comprises 30% of GDP by producing food. Rice is our main food and our population requires 55. 0 million tons of rice per year. However our country is now producing 27. 32 million tons for more than 140 million people (BBS and DAE, 2007). Though the growth of productivity goes up, but these growths of productivity cannot reduce the poor people’s hunger of our country. Without rice, Bangladesh cultivates other crop, vegetables and fruits. Though having natural calamities production of these things are well. But to distribute all over the country Bangladesh has to import some. And for this reason market price of these foods remain high for some corrupted business, tax and for unplanned steps of government. For this reasons people of our country suffer a lot recently. Not only this, imbalanced and unequal livelihood is quite responsible for food security. There are so many rich peoples in Bangladesh who leads luxurious life, eat rich and expensive and at the same time waste a lot. And they don’t have any concern about the poor people of their country!

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Moral Consequences

At this late date, virtually every American knows the most widely broadcast fallout from the Enron scandal- the collapse of a mega-corporation, jail sentences for many of key players in the scandal, and the realization that no company is invincible, especially given the fact that its very caretakers were in fact its killers.   Beyond this, however, there are moral consequences for American society overall, knowing now that highly paid executives stole the retirement futures of those who worked so hard to build up the company of Enron. Because of Enron, we now are faced with the fact that this was not just a business issue, but a human one as well.   Of course, financial ruin is horrible, but money can be replaced.   What cannot be replaced in many cases are the shattered lives that became that way when Enron fell apart.   For example, churches in the Houston, Texas area- the headquarters of Enron- were flooded with the â€Å"ordinary people† who worked at Enron, and who were then without jobs and their life savings.   For these people, many felt that the only answer to their problems was to end it all with suicide, and with nowhere else to turn, went to the churches for support (The Christian Century, 2002). On a higher level, American society has to face the fact that when money and power are involved, even those whom we think we can trust cannot totally be trusted.   Morally, America has fallen into a dark area where those who can steal from others for some short-term gain will usually do so. In closing, the moral consequence for America, in light of Enron, is a further loss of innocence. Bibliography Houston Church Deals with Layoffs at Enron. (2002, January 30). The Christian Century, 119, 15.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

TOLAC vs. elective repeat cesarean delivery

Any scar tissue is weaker than original tissue, but can usually carry the function of the organ. With past hysterectomy the uterus is weakened by the surgical cut; increasing the risk uterine rupture during labor (when the uterine muscles work hard to push the fetus though the birth canal).The consequences of such event can be catastrophic for both the mother and the baby; prompting obstetricians to recommending elective cesarean section to their patients. Cesarean section, even when scheduled ahead of time, is still a major abdominal surgery; putting patients at risk of complications such as lacerations of the intestines and bladder, infection, hemorrhage, development of DO and pulmonary embolism. Post surgical adhesions can result in bowel obstructions, infertility, organ displacements and pain.Through years of research, it has been proven that babies delivered via C-section are at increased risk for respiratory complications and NICE stays (Kamala, 2009). Mothers considering elect ive repeat cesarean should be aware that multiple scars on the uterus can complicate future pregnancies resulting in conditions such as placenta Prevail and placenta accurate. Multiple hysterectomies (cut though the uterus) increase the risk of necessary hysterectomy (removal of the organ) during or even after the surgery.Because the risks increase with each consequent cesarean, mothers delivering via this method should be educated about possible limit on the number of future pregnancies (London, 2011; AGOG, 2010) Despite the dangers associated with repeat cesarean, supporters of this method argue that the risks associated with elective surgical delivery are lower than those associated with emergency c-section following uterine rupture . Because of the restrictions on the TOTAL candidates as well as limited interventions augmenting delivery during TOTAL, for many mothers repeat cesarean is the only safe option of delivering her baby.TOTAL / ABACA In the late ass's of last century an increasing number of cesarean deliveries prompt the National Institute of Health and American College of Obstetrics and Genealogy to encourage B providers to allow woman with prior Cesarean an option for vaginal earth. TOTAL has since become a popular choice; increasing in numbers up to mid ass's; reaching 28% in 1996 ( AGOG, 2010). ) To some mothers natural delivery is a very important aspect of welcoming a baby to the world.Among the advantages of successful ABACA, shortened hospitals stay and greatly decreased recovery times often are important considerations for mothers who already have one or more children in the house. Natural offset of labor often is associated with developmental readiness of the fetus and results with lower NICE stays. Passing through the birth canal pushes he fluid out of the baby's lungs easing the first breaths and decreasing respiratory distress. Natural labor stimulates production of colostrums and speeds up secretion of milk, allowing newborns a bette r nutritional start (London, et. All, 2011).Careful selection of candidates for TOTAL decrease the dangers associated with this option, but serious risks for both mother and baby remain. As Mentioned earlier uterine rupture is among the worse case scenarios, granting the need for emergency cesarean section. Health research established that the risk of uterine tear or rupture upends on the kind of incision(s) previously performed on the uterus. The classic hysterectomy is associated with the greatest risks of rupture during labor. This kind of incision was popular in the past and consisted of high vertical cut though the fibers of the upper part of the uterus.Low vertical hysterectomy is similar to classic incision, but take place in the lower non portion of the uterus, resulting in fewer risk of rupture during future labor, however because the incision cuts through the number of fibers in the uterus (vertical cut through the horizontally align smooth muscles of uterus) the risk is s till greater than the low transverse incision. The latest one, being the safest and most commonly performed nowadays (certain situations however prompt the B provider to use vertical or other incisions of the uterus, those may include: emergency, multiple gestations, unfavorable position of the fetus).Because the superficial cut though the skin may not match the direction of the hysterectomy, adequate review of the patient documentation form the previous deliveries is necessary to assure patient's safety during trial of labor. Vertical incisions almost always grant the patient the need for the repeat cesarean ( London, et all, 2011). Because of the real risk of uterine rupture, mothers attempting TOTAL should be closely monitored during labor; external monitors should be attached to continuously observe frequency of contractions and fetal heart rate.Rapid change in the fetal heart rate, combined with the loss of contraction on the monitor may be associated with the tear in the uteru s. Certain medications and procedures may increase woman's risk of uterine rupture: inducing labor with Piton or certain prostaglandin s among such actions therefore limiting Total's to spontaneous offset of labor. Delivering the baby past its due date is associated with larger babies; increasing the strain on the weakened uterus. (Guise, et. Al, 2010) In addition to the presence of the favorable horizontal uterine incision, mothers should meet other recommended criteria to have the greatest chance of successful TOTAL: pelvis appropriate for delivery, body weight less than 200 lbs and favorable fetal position at the time of delivery along with lack of overall health conditions (diabetes, hypertension Just to name a few)(AGOG, 2010). It is thought that previous vaginal delivery (whether before the C-section or ABACA) greatly increases the chances for successful vaginal delivery, while lack of such experience may sway the providers away from TOTAL.A provider's personal experience with TOTAL may also play a role when choices regarding delivery are discussed. CONCLUSION Despite the benefits of ABACA and the reduced medicals risks that have come with advancement in the field, ABACA deliveries are on the decline from their high. â€Å"[sic] however, medico-legal issues and concerns about the risk of uterine rupture have undistributed to a reversal in this trend† (Angstrom, 2011) and in 2006 only 8. 5% of woman successfully gave vaginal birth after previous c-section experience (AGOG, 2010).Nowadays less than 10% of mothers chooses TOTAL over elective cesarean, between 60 and 80% of them will successfully deliver their baby vaginally (ABACA). Despite great chances for successful outcomes of TOTAL many facilities and providers don't offer their patients an option for TOTAL, pressing the expecting mothers for elective surgery. This may have been the result of earlier strict recommendations released by the AGOG in the ass's which requiring facilities offering TOT AL to have ability of performing emergency cesarean sections on woman with failed TOTAL dames, 2010).Despite recent loosening of those strict requirements in August of 2010 many hospitals still offer repeat cesarean as the only option available. Attempting TOTAL in facilities that are not equipped for emergent situations seems very risky, as labor may quickly change its direction and put the mother and her baby at risk (situation that may arise during any labor). Additionally, attempting TOTAL at facilities that start offering it due to a change in recent recommendations seems also to favorable for the mother; as those facilities lack personnel trained and accustomed to the care of laboring woman with a history of cesarean.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Biblical Concept of Sin Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Biblical Concept of Sin - Article Example The present research has identified that the bible is the Christian’s guide to live a spiritually healthy life. The bible has many authors in the different books, who were inspired by God. The Bible teaches Christians to live a pure life with no sin; however, it does not provide a precise definition of sin. Instead, the Bible elaborates on remedies to sin. Like other doctrines, Kinghorn acknowledges the need to apply the concept of progressive revelation. In his attempt to reveal the biblical view of sin, Kinghorn studies the doctrine of sin in both the old and new testaments. He uses this approach in order to follow the revelation of the doctrine of sin throughout the centuries, from the creation of man, as God manifests himself in the human families setting. Kinghorn identifies numerous terms that look into the concept of sin in the Old Testament, which makes it an ideal study in order to understand the doctrine of sin. Mentions of sin in the Old Testament are in Hebrew, who se translations may distort the precise definition of the terms. In this article, we see sin as having an inward concept and an outside concept. The inward concept is best seen in the case of the tenth commandment, while the outside concept of sin is seen in cold-blooded murder. There are many concepts of sin including an act of wrongdoing with regard to ethics, breaking the law due to ill motive, and breaking the covenant of God as a deflection from the lawgiver.   giver. We also look at the doctrine of sin according to the new testament, as portrayed by Jesus through parables and Paul in his letters. The author concludes by relating the doctrine of sin to the opinions of Wesleyans. Critical interaction In defining sin according to the New Testament, Kinghorn looks at human family and the relation it had with God. The family setting in the Old Testament defined sin as an inward act, owing to the sins of our first parents, before it became an outward act. In this regard sin was seen as breaking the law, which made it punishable. According to the Hebrews, there was a clear distinction between sin, which was defined as an act of wrong doing, and what did not constitute sin. According to the book of Leviticus, sin was any act that was contrary to the command, whether it was done knowingly or unknowingly, due to ignorance. Kinghorn supports this claim by quoting the book of Leviticus 5: 17, which says "And if any one sin, and do any of the things wh ich Jehovah hath commanded not to be done, though he knew it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." The Old Testament looks at both the ethical and legal concepts of sin. In the former, sin involves an act, while in the latter, it is about breaking a law, regardless of knowledge of its existence. Another kind of sin in the Old Testament is one that is not portrayed on the outside, like in the case of condemning murder only if it’s done willingly. Analysis of the sin according to the Old Testament is fouuunded on the idea of progression, whereby the concept of sin is revealed in various people and prophets as we move towards Christianity. Kinghorn identifies some bible characters that had greater vision than others, like in the case of Enoch. He also reveals another concept of sin that involves breaking the covenant of God that is built on human obedience. In such cases, sin is seen as a rebellion against God since the covenant forms the basis of the relationship between God and man. In the Old Testament, sin was seen as not only breaking the law, but also a deflection from the law giver. The analysis of sin according

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Individualized Education Program Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Individualized Education Program - Essay Example From the report it is clear that  the program depicts and portrays the aims and objectives along with the exceptional assistance that a child may need during the school curriculum. When a child necessitates with special care as he faces complexity and trouble in learning, implementing and executing task or activity, he is likely to fall under the category where a child needs IE program.As the discussion highlights  when the child’s unique and distinctive needs come under inimitable observation by the parents, teachers, school team and even the child himself, the productive and persuasive IE program is probable to develop that plays a great deal of assistance for the student to progress rapidly. The plan and the structure of the program entail deep awareness and understanding, practice and familiarity, and dedication from the declared people that will make the student engage, engross, improve and grow from the designed course of action. The goal setting come under preparati on as a foundation stone of IE program and has an aim to have targets that are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time restricted.  The reflection and the picture that a person views, is created by the lens on the retina that gathers, assemble, concentrates, examine, consign and disseminate the light into the lens of the human eyes.  In other words, eyesight or the vision is one of the unique and beautiful gifts from God that a person has. The retina transforms the light that enters into the eyes of the humans into signals that travels to the brain via the optic nerve. When the signals do not reach up to the brains to communicate with the eye or a part of them come under damage, the person falls in the visual impairment disease. With the advancement of technologies, several medical treatments and surgeries come under performance to repair or bring back the vision of a person. The severe congenital visual impairment refers to the loss of eyesight that is present from birth; however, there can be various reasons that can cause this disease that may include inheritance or may have originated via some infection that the fetus catches during the mother’s pregnancy (Moore &  Graves & Patterson, 1997). The visual impairment transports few disabilities as well. Inadequate and narrow leaning skill or the incapability of learning from the surroundings is one of the side  effects and distinctive attribute that the children with visual impairment administer and experience. According to the studies, the evidence has come under the fact that much of the learning of students come under occurrence through their vision and the students who are disable with this gift gain knowledge through the signals of image (Roman-Lantzy, 2007). However, this impairment encompasses several complications to the children as an outcome of the injury. Students may have hindrance and interruptions in their growth and progress due to the reason that their brain may have had some injury. They may demonstrate signs of lacking in their concentrations to sight stimulus. These students when examine, search and seek for any material entity or things, their top priority changes to the sense of touch and feel over their sight. The consequence of the congenital visual impairment may have oscillation to the general health of the child, and may experience and may affect by the diseases

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Internet crimes Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Internet crimes - Research Paper Example It is becoming common to see it on the news or listening to people complaining that they found some purchases on their credit card bills that they know nothing about and never bought them. The past week CNN showed a report about Sara who was send to life in prison; because she was a leader of global organization, committing crimes through the Internet by stealing credit cards ,stealing government secret information, selling weapons to terrorist groups and selling drugs around the world. Slowly the members of the organization started to fall one by one, it took a long time because they were not only from different countries but also different continents and here is the difficulty. This was the first difficulties and not least, this case was pending in the court for years , it was not like other cases; there are no concrete nor concrete evidence in addition to all this there were no witnesses saw the moment of criminals commit crimes and this was the real challenge for the prosecution. Tools execution of the crime was unusual, as the items used did not iclude a knife, pistol nor usual weapon. In some situations, they were creating fake pages to sell things. Most of the victims were not familiar with the internet on the other hand some were specialists and even professionals. II. Governments C. Cyber Crime Targeting Governments Governments in different countries are focused on issues regarding national security that are associated with internet crimes. For instance, the military has been applying e-mails as a preferred way of communicating. Furthermore, increased development of World Wide Web has led to significant induction in the public domain (Middleton, 2013). Therefore, World Wide Web became a point to be utilized as a virtual medium by criminals. In fact, due increased growth of terrorism, these criminals have commenced to adopt technology as one of their tools to execute their attacks against governments. In this case, terrorists are increasingly applying i nternet as a way of disseminating their ideology and facilitating their ability to undertake their activities against a large society and governments. Terrorist organizations focus on using internet to make attempts of disrupting communication hubs, which affects various governments. Therefore, through internet crimes these terrorist are able to undertake substantial activities that has a great effects that cause loss to the governments (Middleton, 2013). Military application of information has a significant role in the context of national security and this can affect decision-making processes. Other attackers are focused on hampering activities undertaken by intelligence and counter-intelligence in virtual medium such as military activities and management of information among advanced nations (Agustina, 2012). Furthermore, attackers are able to disrupt information’s network of advanced nations via virtual medium. Therefore, due to cost effectiveness of virtual medium, develo ping countries have applied their techniques in order to attain military supremacy through the internet, but this has led to increased vulnerability and compromised national security (Middleton, 2013). B. Internet Crime Reports There are cyber crimes units made by governments and law enforcement agencies deals with internet crimes through teams that are focused on tracking down cyber criminal. For instance, in America, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has a unit

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

RELIGION IN PROMETHEUS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

RELIGION IN PROMETHEUS - Essay Example We are then prompted to ask, what is the connection between science and religion? The key to Prometheus is the spoiler alert. In its proposition, the engineers with their religion of self-sacrifice are said to have seeded life on earth and elsewhere. Inferring from the film, the crucifixion of Jesus about 2000 years ago is said to have prompted a civil war among the engineers. The theme of the war was founded on the meaning of the Cross Event as practised on earth. Ridley Scotts Prometheus has become the most debated film of the summer. It is beautiful and significant and presents human questions that appear the most primary of the time (Hey, 2008). However, whether the questions are asked well in the film and if the responses given out of that are satisfactory is debatable. One of the most controversial and intriguing thematic concern of the films is the involvement of an overt discussion of faith and science. The character of Dr Elizabeth is a scientist whose father was a missionary in the Catholic Church. The controversy arises in her character. The argument is pegged on the fact that she maintains her religious faith despite her argument for the evidence that an alien ancient species had used genetic engineering to create humanity in its image. Instead of questioning the concept of a supernatural creator, Elizabeth shifts her belief to the credence of an intergalactic God who made the creator species. The 1968 ‘Chariots of the Gods book by Erich Daniken promotes the pseudoscience ‘ancient astronaut theory (Juhant & ZÃŒÅ'alec, 2011). It is quite interesting to imagine how the scientific community would react to Scotts move to embrace this approach. However, it would be more interesting to contemplate the reaction of the religious communities to its plotline. The belief in an external force that plays a role in the creation of humanity could be a concept that has the potential for both anger and delight among the religious groups. It should be

Monday, September 9, 2019

Political Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Political Science - Essay Example The first quality is that the theory should explain why interethnic relations are mostly based on tension and mistrust. The second one should explain why the results of interethnic relations are peace and cooperation instead of violence. Lastly, it should explain why in some situations interethnic relations result in spirals of violence or sometimes in war. According to Fearon and Laitin, interethnic conflicts have claimed over ten million lives worldwide since the end of the Second World War (715). However, the approach of many scholars to analyzing this situation is biased, especially while selecting the cases of ethnic conflicts. They focus mainly on post-Soviet and African countries where actual cases of ethnic violence are relatively fewer than potential cases of ethnic violence. In order to avoid biased selection of ethnic violence cases, there is the need for theories that not only account for causes of ethnic violence but also the outcomes of ethnic tension other than violenc e. The first are rationalist theories, which refer to ethnic groups as joint forces that take or defend beneficial materials from others. These materials include education, labor and state investments. In case one ethnic group denies the other the right to possess a certain material, then violence would result between the two groups. The others are psychological theories that refer to ethic groups as a satisfaction to the need of belonging to a group. Therefore, in this case ethnic violence may occur if one group threatens the psychological satisfaction of the other. In addition to rationalist and psychological theories, game theories would be more precise in explaining outcomes of ethnic conflicts other than violence. Game theories consist of spiral equilibrium and in-group policing equilibrium. Spiral equilibrium is where an individual action during the game is taken to be a joint action of the whole group. In this case, all members of group A punish group B members following unac ceptable behavior from one member of group B. A single player from either group immediately triggers a state of complete breakdown of cooperation that once existed between the groups. On the other hand, in-group policing equilibrium is where one group ignores violating actions from the other group, assuming that the other group is going to take disciplinary action against the individual that caused the violation (Fearon and Laitin 730). In this case, a defection of a member from either group does not affect the reaction of the other group. Instead of members from group B responding negatively to members in group A because one of the members from group A portrayed unacceptable behavior, the game continues as if nothing had happened. In some cases, there is the presence of â€Å"noise† which, in this context, refers to additional defections such as drunkenness, misinterpretations or sudden passions. In such a case, the best theoretical approach to addressing ethnic outcome woul d be in-group policing equilibrium. In group policing, unlike spiral regime, punishment is only applicable to the individual responsible for a defection. The other reason that makes in-group policing more appropriate is the fact that in spiral equilibrium members respond to a tiny issue in the same way they would respond to a serious

Specific advancement in the arts and technology Essay

Specific advancement in the arts and technology - Essay Example This thesis discusses the Digital Photography, a breakthrough technology of over three decades ago, as a specific advancement in the arts and technology. The thesis statement is â€Å"The advent of digital photography has revolutionized the field of arts because it has accelerated and simplified the technology of photography by drastically decreasing the time and expenses associated to take photographs, offering advanced tools of processing and enabling persons with little training and no experience to create beautiful photographs†. Bellis (2011a) has summarized the background of the time period leading to the invention of digital photography. Though the basic principles of optics and camera were known to Chinese and Greek philosophers as early as during the 5th-4th centuries B.C., the discovery that white light was composed of seven different colors was made only in the 17th century by Issac Newton. In 1727, Johann Heinrich Schulze found out that sunlight acted upon silver nitrate to produce dark metallic silver. In 1814, Joseph Niepce obtained the first ever photographic image with camera obscura. Louis Daguerre developed a convenient and effective method of photography in 1837 called daguerreotype, which he introduced to the public in 1839 at Paris (Bellis,2011b). In 1841,William Henry Talbot invented the negative-positive photo making process capable of producing multiple copies. Frederick Scott Archer developed the Collodion process in 1851 requiring only a few seconds light exposure. In 1871 Richard Leach Maddox developed the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process. In 1884 George Eastman invented flexible paper-based photographic film and in 1888 he patented the Kodak roll-film camera. In 1898 Reverend Hannibal Goodwin patented the celluloid photographic film. The first commercially mass produced camera named Brownie was marketed in 1900. In 1913-14 the first 35mm still camera was developed which was followed by the

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Political Science - Nations vs States vs Nation-States Essay

Political Science - Nations vs States vs Nation-States - Essay Example However, the merge of all these elements do not constitute a nation (Sarmah 3). People in a nation share common beliefs and religion, and are unified in common descent and language. â€Å"Nations occupy a self-constituting public space characterized by specific identities and ways of life† (Segesvary 22). Unity among its people is important to a nation. Prior to the First World War, Austria-Hungary was considered as a state but not as a nation. People of Austria and Hungary were politically united; separated by any affinity; individually diverse; and unwilling to live in unity. A state must be sovereign; however, a nation will remain being a nation even if it loses sovereignty. There is no division between a state and a nation in a single-nation state. A state can have a number of nationalities to make a nation. It is when a nation loses its statehood that the distinction between the two becomes evident. Germany and Japan lost their statehood in the post-World War II because t hey lost sovereignty, however they maintained their nationhood because of their people’s aspiration to live in unity and affinity. Later, these countries were able to regain statehood (Sarmah 3). Inhabitants of a nation are racially harmonized with shared universal language, faith, traditions, and history.

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Research Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Research Paper - Essay Example To be specific, choosing an apt thesis for my research work was the most important problem. I need to prove myself that I am able to point out my own opinion on the topic selected for the research work. One can see that thesis is to be considered as the core element of a research work which influences the work as a whole. I was totally confused because I was permitted to choose the topic by my own. So, I decided to go through books. This initiative helped me to have through knowledge in the topic selected for the research work. I came to realize that no one can plan a research work without having thorough knowledge in the topic. I decided to make use of the books, journal articles and other sources and began to take notes. Then, I chose an apt thesis for my research work, went through other research works, and created an outline for my work. Next, I went through the notes and chose the most important points and quotations related to the topic. This was an easy task for me because the knowledge gathered from books, online journal articles, and other sources helped me to create an apt bibliography. Then, I began to write my first draft, including all the points to be included in the research work. After completing my task, I came to know that one of my peers is facing difficulty with the task of finding relevant sources for the research work. To be specific, this problem cannot be dealt with ease. My friend/peer must show utmost care and attention in finding relevant sources. For instance, my friend can go through the available books, journals and other sources in the library. After completing this task, my friend can make use of ‘Google Books’ to search books. Besides, my friend can make use of online magazines, online journal databases, online editions of newspapers and online libraries. I hope all these steps can help my friend/peer to complete

Friday, September 6, 2019

Electric Vehicles Essay Example for Free

Electric Vehicles Essay Skyrocketing fuel pricing along with depleting oil resources and increased environmental concerns have pushed mankind to consider alternative sources of fuel to power automobiles. Among all the alternate fuel ideas that include everything from excreta to biodiesel, electricity has also been considered as a best alternative to conventional fuels. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a promising technology for drastically reducing the environmental burden of road transport. Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been around since mid 1800s. During early years, electric vehicles had many advantages over cars powered by internal combustion engines. Such as vehicles with internal combustion engines were started using a hand crank, whereas EVs could be started like regular cars today. EVs did not have gearboxes or the noise and vibration levels of a petrol-powered car. However, their expensive price tag and limited range led petrol powered car to prosper. However later, rising fuel prices, limited oil resources and environmental concerns brought the electric car back into mainstream production line for automobiles. Today, almost all mainstream car makers have been building electric concept cars as well as production version of electric and hybrid cars. Introduction: An automobile that is powered entirely or partially by electricity are electric vehicles. Electric cars are the cleanest, most efficient, and most cost-effective form of transportation around. Seriously, electric cars are high-performance vehicles that will continue to meet new challenges in the future. There are generally of three types: Battery Electric Vehicle: A battery electric vehicle runs entirely on an electric motor, powered by a battery. The battery is charged through an electrical outlet. One of it is Nissan Leaf . Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: A plug-in hybrid vehicle has both an electric motor and a gasoline engine onboard. These vehicles generally run on the electric motor until the battery is depleted, at which point the gas engine can kick in, extending the car’s range. The main battery in a plug-in hybrid is charged through an electrical outlet. An example of a plug-in hybrid is the Chevrolet Volt. Hybrid Electric Vehicle: A typical hybrid electric vehicle is fuelled by gasoline and uses a battery-powered motor to improve efficiency, thus is not considered a plug-in electric vehicle. The battery in a gasoline hybrid is never plugged into an electrical outlet, but instead is powered by a combination of the gasoline engine and regenerative braking. The most well known hybrid electric vehicle is the Toyota Prius. WORKING OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES: A. Battery Electric Vehicles(BEV’s) Electric cars are zero-emission cars at the point of their usage. There are two types of charger plugs in BEV’s. One is quick charger plug which charges the battery at faster rate compared to the household charger plugs. On board chargers are used to convert AC power to DC power. The controller controls the amount of power to be transmitted to the motor, which in turn, converts the electrical power to the motive power. Nickel-Metal Hydride and Lithium-ion cells are the latest battery modes used nowadays. B. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hybrid electric vehicles combines the best features of conventional as well as electrical cars. The underlying principle of hybrid cars comprises of the usage of temporary power storage which later on enables the major engine to be functioned at the close to its supreme efficiency. There are two types of hybrid drive generated series hybrids and parallel hybrids. In ‘series hybrid’, the combustion engine sends the power to the electrical generator. Electrical generator converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy which is converted into DC by the inverter to be stored in the battery. Power from the battery can be inverted back to AC so that the electric motor converts it into motive power. In parallel hybrid the car wheels are either powered by engine or from the battery powered electric drive-train. Planetary gear system is used to transmit the power into axle. Electric motors and planetary gear system work as a Continuously Variable Transmission(CVT). In both the hybrids, whenever the engine ignites slowly, the excess energy is stored for the later usage. In this way, these cars provide less emission and improved fuel economy. Conventional Cars Vs Electric Vehicles A. Fuel Efficiency In a conventional car: . * 87. 4 % of fuel energy is wasted * Only 12. 6 % of fuel energy is transferred to the wheels * 5. 8 % is turned to kinetic energy, consumed in the brake * 17. 2 % idling losses, engine on with no torque How Hybrids save fuel? 1. Engine is turned off at: -Stops -Lower speed (say less that 15 km/h), an electric motor drives the car until speed reaches a certain limit, then engine kicks in -When vehicle is stopping or going downhill, engine is turned off, and regenerative braking is applied. 2. When engine operates in an inefficient mode(e. g. at very high or very low engine speeds), the electric motor kicks in and assists engine. Engine is driven to its optimum operating zone 3. Engine can be made smaller, due to electric motor assistance B. Emissions: 1. In combustion engine, emissions occur during driving 2. In E-cars, emission occurs only during electricity production. C. Operating Cost 1. In combustion cars, take petrol at Rs. 73/lt, and a car that achieves 25kms/lt. Energy cost is Rs3/km. 2. Now take electricity at Rs. 6/kW-h, and a car that consumes 125 W-h/km. Energy cost is Rs. 0. 75/km D. Efficiency ratio: 1 Combustion engine: 25-30 percent 2. Electric motor: close to 90 percent TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES: The main problem with the electric car is battery. Such as:- Time of battery charging is long. -Batteries are heavy. -Batteries are expensive. -Low performance in hot or cold temperatures also may damage the battery -Very sensitive to overcharge/undercharge(Battery life reduces dramatically) -Contain toxic heavy metals, disposal issue. All these provide scope for the further research and development in the field of electric vehicles. The RD are supported by the government and industries. POSSIBLE FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES: Over population and limited energy resources have pushed the need and the demand of the electric vehicles. In the future, we will have hybrids and battery electric vehicles everywhere in the markets, industries and highways. Some of the possible future technologies in this field are: 1. A photovoltaics-carport (solar service station) which is considered as a charging station of electric cars for the future. 2. Battery recharging which will employ a special chemical process, occurring on all energy-storage particles at once; in contrast to the traditional batteries, where only a fraction of the energy storage can be replenished at once . 3. Electrical outlet and electric cable will not be required in future anymore, because the electric car of the future refuels its power fully automatically and without contacting by induction while driving or parking. CONCLUSION: Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum, while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transitition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption.